« ホメオパシー新聞その11 日本腫瘍学会編集誌「統合医療でがんに克つ」にJPHMA由井会長の「日本学術会議会長談話」に対する見解が掲載されました。 | トップページ | ホメオパシー新聞その13 新刊の「ホメオパシー子育て日記」推薦者まえがきで、由井会長が今回のホメオパシーバッシングを語る »

2010年12月 3日 (金)

ホメオパシー新聞その12 週刊ポスト 記事第6回 本連載が大論争を巻き起こした(「ホメオパシー問題」に私がこだわった理由)に対しての見解

週刊ポスト 第6回 本連載が大論争を巻き起こした
「ホメオパシー問題」に私がこだわった理由

ジャーナリスト 国際医療福祉大学大学院教授 黒岩祐治氏

「黒岩はホメオパシー擁護論者でないといいながら、ホメオパシー叩きのマスコミを批判することによって結局は擁護しているのではないか? 日本最大のホメオパシー団体が予防接種やぜんそくに対する吸入ステロイドも否定しているが、そういう事実も知らないのではないか? ホメオパシー批判の朝日新聞の記事を統合医療潰しの意図があると黒岩は疑っているが、そんな風には思えない記事ではないか?」

上記はNATROM氏などの指摘として引用しています。しかしこれを引用することの問題は、素性の知れないNATROM(内科医を自称しているが本当かどうかはわかりません。また個人なのかグループなのか、だれかあるいはどこかから命を受けてやっているのかもわかりません)といわれるホメオパシーに対して偏見をもったブロガーが流している事実でない指摘をそのまま週刊ポストのようなマスメディアに掲載することによって、多くの人があたかもそれが事実であるかのようにとらえてしまうということがあります。黒岩祐治氏は素性の知れない相手に振り回されるのではなく、きちんと日本ホメオパシー医学協会に取材し事実確認を行うべきだったと考えます。

「そもそも私自身にホメオパシーを擁護しようというインセンティブは全くない。「毒をもって毒を制す」といいながら、元の成分が残らないほどに薄めた水で作った飴玉に効果があるわけがない。日本ホメオパシー医学協会は薄めれば薄めるほど効果が出るなどとしているが、それがいかに非科学的かは、あえて科学的証明をする必要がないほど自明なことではないのか。日本学術会議の主張は私の考えと同じである」

黒岩祐治氏は、「元の成分が残らないほどに薄めた水で作った飴玉に効果があるわけがない」と主張していますが、なぜそのようなことを断言できるのか不思議に思います。効果がない治療法が何度も伝統的医学界からの迫害を受けながらも、200年の長きにわって使われ評価され、現在も世界中で使用されている事実をどのように考えるのでしょうか? 効果がないとする文献や論文はごく僅かであるのに対し、ホメオパシーの有効性を示すおびただしい量の文献や論文があることをどのように考えるのでしょうか?(そのごくごく一部ですが最後に掲載しました。) それこそ効果がないという科学的根拠はどこにあるのでしょうか? 元の物質がないからというホメオパシー否定派が唯一よりどころとする根拠の受け売りでしょうか? 音楽CDに癒しの成分はありませんが、そこに保存されている情報が音として再生されると実際癒される人もいますし、そうでなくてもさまざまな影響を人間に与えることは明らかです。生体の情報伝達のメカニズムにしても、昔は鍵と鍵穴といったモデルで物質どうしの物理的接触によって認識が行われていると考えられていましたが、現在は体液を介した物質の固有の振動の伝達によって認識されているという説が有力です。『水の記憶事件』(ホメオパシー出版)に記載されているベンベニスト博士の実験もそれを裏付けています。すなわち物質がなくてもその物質として生体が認識できる形で物質情報だけを与えてやれば、その物質があるかのような生体反応を引き起こすことは可能なのです。このように言うと今度は、水分子は激しく運動しているから水が情報を保存できるわけがないと反論してきます。確かに以前は、水素結合の力は弱く水のクラスター構造は不安定で絶え間なく崩壊と形成を繰り返しており、一定の構造を維持することはできないと考えられていました。しかし現在では、そういう無秩序な水の部分以外に、秩序だっていて液晶化している水の部分が存在することがわかっており、振盪することでその液晶化している水の部分が増えることもわかっています。この部分の水の水素結合は流動的な部分の水の20倍もしっかり結合していることがわかっています。すなわち水が物質情報を保存することはあり得ないことではないのです。実際1988年にイギリスの科学雑誌ネイチャーに掲載されたベンベニスト博士の論文(『高希釈された抗血清中の抗免疫グロブリンE(抗IgE 抗体)によって誘発されるヒト好塩基球の脱顆粒化』ですでに水の記憶に関しては証明されています。ただしそれがどういうメカニズムで情報が保存されているかが完全に解明されていないだけなのです。ベンベニスト博士がネイチャーに掲載された翌年、同じくネイチャーにベンベニスト博士の実験は幻だったとする反対論文が掲載されました。この論文が掲載されるに至った経緯、卑怯な手口などについては、ベンベニスト博士の遺稿となった『真実の告白──水の記憶事件のすべて』(ホメオパシー出版)に書かれています。

いずれにせよ、ホメオパシーが効くという間違いのない事実があり(この事実に関してもプラシーボ効果だと主張する人がいますが、動物や赤ん坊により著しい効果があることから単なるプラシーボ効果でないことは自明です。ホメオパシーの有効性を示す二重盲検法による論文も複数存在し、おびただしい量のエビデンスも存在します)、そういう間違いのない事実が存在する以上、科学者に求められるのは、その事実を説明できる科学的メカニズムの解明であり、そのために仮説と実験によって、観察された現象を明らかにしていくことです。水の記憶もホメオパシーが有効であるという事実を説明するための仮説の一つにすぎません。その他にもホメオパシーが有効であることを説明する多くの仮説が存在します。しかし、観察された事実を無視して、それは科学的にあり得ないとか非科学的だと主張するのは本末転倒であり、科学や既成理論への狂信というよりも、「原物質がなくなった水に効果があるわけがない」という「誰かが意図的に作ったのではないかと疑われる常識(すなわち洗脳された知識)」への狂信、すなわち事実を無視した根拠のない偏狭な価値観への執着からもたらされる幻想でしかありません。そしてそれを何の良心の呵責も感じることなくしたり顔でホメオパシーを語るのは欺瞞でしかありません。しかしながら社会に影響力をもつホメオパシーに無知な人物が無責任に語ることが世論を形成し常識となっていくわけです。なんともやるせないことです。空想するのではなく、もっとしっかり地に足をつけて事実を見るべきです。 そもそもこの黒岩祐治なる人物は、ホメオパシーについて一体どれだけ調査してホメオパシーを語っているのでしょうか? ほとんど調査していないことは彼の語る文章を読めば一目瞭然です。ジャーナリストということですが、ホメオパシーについてほとんど何も知らないし、自分で調べたこともないジャーナリストがどうして「日本学術会議の主張は私の考えと同じである」などとホメオパシーに対する意見を述べることができるのでしょうか? 顔の皮膚が高度に肥厚していなければとてもできないことです。もし仮に黒岩祐治氏がホメオパシーについて調査したと主張するなら、なにをどのように調査されたのか教えていただきたいと思います。

「今回問題になったのは、助産師がホメオパシーだけに頼り、ビタミンK2を投与せずに乳児を死亡させたということである。ホメオパシーそのものが死因ではなく、医療拒否が原因であることは明らかだ。協会自体も臨機規定の中で「病院での検査、診察等を受けることに否定的あってはならない」としているのであるから、助産師は倫理規定違反となるはずだ。」

この問題に関しても黒岩祐治氏はきちんと調査して述べているのでしょうか? それとも自分で調査することなく、他のマスメディアが発信する偽りの情報を自分で適当に加工して述べているのでしょうか?
あたかも事実であるかのように、事実誤認のある下記①②を記載しています。

①「今回問題になったのは、助産師がホメオパシーだけに頼り」
②「ビタミンK2を投与せずに乳児を死亡させたということである。」

①②の事実誤認に基づいて③④の判断をしています。

③「ホメオパシーそのものが死因ではなく、医療拒否が原因であることは明らかだ。」
④「協会自体も臨機規定の中で「病院での検査、診察等を受けることに否定的あってはならない」としているのであるから、助産師は倫理規定違反となるはずだ。」

この件に関してはすでにホメオパシー新聞その11の中で由井氏が『統合医療でがんに克つ』(日本腫瘍学会)の中で述べていますので、以下に引用します。

事実とかけ離れた報道が一人歩きしている

「日本学術会議の報道資料でも「ビタミンKの代わりにレメディーを与えられた生後2カ月の女児が昨年(2009年)10月に死亡し、これを投与した助産婦を母親が提訴したことが本年7月に報道されました」と紹介されています。しかし本ケースで、ホメオパシー利用者であった原告は、ホメオパスの被告(JPHMA会員)に対してレメディーを与えたことを問題にしているのではなく、ビタミンKの不足で死亡したと思われることに対して助産師の業務上の責任を問うているのです。これに対して助産師は、第1回目の弁論で訴状の内容を認めず請求の棄却を求めています。そして助産師は「ビタミンKの代わりにレメディーを」とは言っておらず、その上、死因とビタミンK不足の因果関係も確定されていない状況です。

本ケースは、ある報道機関が訴状内容を十分に確認せず、また助産師の言ったことを歪曲して報道したことに端を発します。その後はおそらく、この報道機関が書いたことの裏付けもとらず事実関係を十分に調査することなく、他の報道機関も追随し、正しくない情報をそのまま流用し報道するという連鎖の中で、あたかもそれが既成事実であるかのようになっていったと考えます。こうして、無実の人が、有罪になってしまうこともあるのだということを今回の一連の報道を通して思い知りました。

JPHMAとしては、裁判中であるため、本件に関しては当初よりコメントを差し控えてきましたが、あまりに事実とかけ離れた報道が1人歩きしている状況を憂い、ここに争点以外の部分で真相の一部を公表することにしました。」

当該助産師は、決して現代医学に否定的ではありません。もちろん、本協会の倫理規程違反もしていません。黒岩祐治氏は何の根拠があって、助産師がホメオパシーだけに頼っていたとか、ビタミンK2を投与せずに乳児を死亡させたと断言しているのでしょうか?

ジャーナリスト 国際医療福祉大学大学院教授 黒岩祐治氏

「確かに、協会会長の由井寅子氏が『予防接種によって、健康を犠牲にして達成される予防などナンセンス』として、予防接種に否定的見解を示しているのは事実だ。由井氏は日本ホメオパシーを導入した張本人であり、強烈なメッセージ力を持った人物である。信奉者に「西洋医学よりもホメオパシーだ」と感じさせてしまったとすれば、その責任は大きい。そういう事実を前の原稿で触れていなかったことが「ホメオパシーの問題点を過小評価させる」といわれていれば、それは率直に反省したい」

ホメオパシーが有効でないとしたら、その主張は正しいと言えるでしょうが、ホメオパシーは漢方に次いで世界中で使用されている療法であり、ヨーロッパの各国やインドなど世界各国で多くの医師も使用している信頼できる治療法で多くの治癒実績があります。黒岩祐治氏は「予防接種によって、健康を犠牲にして達成される予防などナンセンス」として、予防接種に否定的見解を示しているのは事実だ」と述べていますが、黒岩祐治氏自身このことの意味を正しく理解した上で引用しているのでしょうか? 予防接種の予防は病原体や病原体の構成成分を抗原としてそれに対する抗体を作らせることにありますが、抗体を作らせ何年も永続的に存在させるためには、抗原すなわち病原体やその一部が体に残存していることが前提となります。血液中に異物が残存する状態は健康とはいえません。なぜなら健康であれば異物を排泄してしまうからです。したがって、こうして達成される予防は、最初から慢性病になっていたら急性病を発症することはないという意味での予防効果であり、そうして予防されるのであれば、すなわち健康を犠牲にして達成される予防であるなら、ナンセンスと考えるのは当然ではないでしょうか。そういうことを抜きにしても、ワクチンが免疫を低下させる証拠はやまほどありますが、ワクチンが免疫を向上させる証拠は皆無です。しかしだからといって日本ホメオパシー医学協会は、予防接種に反対しているわけでなく、予防接種をするしないの判断はあくまでも本人もしくは子供であれば親がするものであると考えていますし、同様に、ワクチンを作る作らないも製薬会社の自由であると考えており反対していません。もちろん、予防接種や薬で副作用や副反応があるものは、気をつけて使うべきであると考えます。

「信奉者に「西洋医学よりもホメオパシーだ」と感じさせてしまったとすれば、その責任は大きい」と書いていますが、この短絡的な記述から黒岩祐治氏はホメオパシーの長所を理解していないことがわかります。西洋医学は検査などによって異常を見つけることができて初めて病名を付けることができ、そうして何かしらの対処をすることができます。しかし身体的な異常を見つけることができる以前に、生命体は生命エネルギーレベルで異常になっていることがほとんどですが、唯物的な考えをベースにしている現代医学はそれを認めることができないでしょうし、それゆえに治療法をもちません。しかし現代医学は臓器や器官や組織に異常がある場合、それを分子レベルで正常にさせることができたりし、その技術は命の危機がある場合や薬なしに正常な機能を保つことがもはや難しい場合には、これに勝る治療法はないと考えます。また検査技術は未然に身体レベルの異常を発見し、それに対して早期に手を打つことができるという点で素晴らしいものであります。事故、怪我などの対処、手術、救急医療などではもちろん現代医学は素晴らしいものであります。しかし未病のうちに対処するには、ホメオパシーは現代医学よりも明らかに優れた治療法といえます。未病の内に対応できるという点においては、「西洋医学よりもまずホメオパシー」という考えは、ある意味正しいと言えると考えています。しかしだからといって、由井氏が西洋医学を軽視していることには繋がりません。むしろ西洋医学の重要性を力説しているぐらいです。またホメオパシーが万能ではないことを理解しているし、また西洋医学をはじめどんな療法も万能ではなく、長所と短所があることを理解し、それゆえに、統合医療を掲げているのです。しかし上述した現代医学の長所をも否定し、頑なにホメオパシーに固執する人がいたとしたらそれは確かに問題であり、日本ホメオパシー医学協会会員には日頃から人々がそのように考えることのないよう注意を促しており、今回、今一度認識の徹底を図っています。

責任について語っていますが、ホメオパシーについてほとんど何も知らない黒岩祐治氏が無責任な記事を書くことで多くの国民がホメオパシーに対する偏見と間違った考えを植え付けられ、本来ホメオパシー療法によって未然に病気になることを防ぐことができたであろう多くの人からホメオパシーを遠ざけてしまったとしたらその責任は大きいどころの話ではありません。黒岩祐治氏にはその責任を負う覚悟でこの記事を書いているのでしょうか?それともホメオパシーやそれによって恩恵を受けるであろう人のことなどどうでもよく、原稿収入や名声が得られたらそれでいいという考えで適当なことを書いているのでしょうか?もしそうではないと主張されるのであれば、ホメオパシーについて一度真剣に自分できちんと調査されることを強くお願いしたい。真面目に自分の仕事に取り組みなさい。

日本ホメオパシー医学協会も由井氏も、現代医学も薬も必要なものであると認識しているし、一貫してそのように語ってきています。これまでの一連のホメオパシー新聞を読んでいただければ、我々の主旨はわかっていただけると考えています。現代医学とホメオパシー、医師とホメオパスが一致協力してお互いの治療法のよい部分を補い合うことがクライアントの利益に繋がると信じています。

さらに、ホメオパシーは宗教ではなく、信奉者という表現は不適切です。むしろ、何百万という世界中の治癒の臨床事実を無視して、原物質がなくなっている水が効くわけがないと切り捨てる態度こそが、偏見に満ちた空想の盲目的な信奉者であると言えます。

黒岩祐治氏は 「由井氏は日本にホメオパシーを導入した張本人であり」と書いていますが、「張本人」という言葉を辞書で引くと、「事件の起こるもとをつくった人、首謀者、「騒動の―」」(大辞泉より)、「主謀者、首犯、首領、首魁(しゅかい)、巨魁、元凶」(必携 類語実用辞典三省堂より)と出てくることからわかるように、由井氏に対してあたかも問題を起こした首謀者扱いの言葉であり、事実無根の誹謗中傷であり、名誉棄損となるものです。由井氏を知らない人はこの記事を読むことで、由井氏を誤解し、悪い印象をもってしまうことが懸念されると同時にホメオパシーというよくない療法を日本に持ち込んだふとどきものということで、ホメオパシー療法も否定する発言です。多くの新聞・雑誌などのメディア、また、それを見えないところで操っている権益団体は、自己治癒力を使い、自らが、健康になることをすすめている由井氏や日本ホメオパシー医学協会が、悪者になることがとても大事なのかもしれません。そして、自己治癒をサポートするホメオパシーがあやしい療法となることがとても大事なのでしょう。実際は、由井氏は黒岩祐治なる人物に一度も会ったことも話したこともなく、日本ホメオパシー医学協会も一度も直接の取材を受けたことがありません。日本にはひとりも真実を書くことを選択するジャーナリストはいないのでしょうか。世論に迎合し偽りの記事を書くことを選択するジャーナリストしか日本にはいないのでしょうか。

「しかし、いかがわしい療法であるというイメージがホメオパシーそのものに限定されているなら、私はあえてこの連載で取り上げる必要はなかった」

その様なイメージがあるというのはだれが判断したものなのでしょうか? このようなホメオパシーに無知なジャーナリストが、無責任な記事を書くことで、いかがわしい療法というイメージが形成されるのではないでしょうか? この記事もそのように最初から意図されて書かれているのでしょうか。

「ホメオパシーを擁護する気はないが、「西洋医学以外は、何となくいかがわしい」という雰囲気が広がれば、日本の伝統的療法である鍼灸さえも、"推定無罪"で失われかねない。ホメオパシーの一事を万事に拡げるべきではないと強く思うのはそういう意味である。」

「ホメオパシーの一事を万事に」もはや言うことはありません。上記をお読み下さい。

以下にごくごく一部ですが参考文献を紹介します。
世界の一流有名人がホメオパシーを選ぶ理由(ホメオパシー出版)
ホメオパシーの手引き⑧出産(ホメオパシー出版)
水の記憶事件(ホメオパシー出版)
ペットのためのホメオパシー(ホメオパシー出版)
医術のオルガノン(ホメオパシー出版

①海外ホメオパスの報告

出典:The Homoeopathic Heritage International Spring 2008

ホメオパシーの科学的エビデンス

Scientific Evidences About Homeopathy
ラジニーシュ・クマール・シャルマ、ルーチー・ラージプート

ホメオパシーは芸術なのだろうか、それとも科学か、ただのプラセボに過ぎないのかということは、常に悩みのタネになって来た。反対派たちに対抗するため、ここで述べるグループ分けによる莫大な量の科学的調査が、ホメオパシーは完全に科学的システムを備えていることを裏付けるべく実施された。

初期の調査

そもそもの研究はハーネマン自身によって行われた。キナ皮の絞り汁を用いて「similia similibus curentur」という普遍的な治癒の法則を発見したのである。彼は薬剤の量を減らせば減らすほど、ただし希釈に震盪という作業を加えたややこしい方法で行った場合のみ、その有効性が高まることに気付き、その過程はポーテンタイゼーション/ダイナマイゼーション(活性化)と呼ばれている。

現代の調査

ハーネマンの後、研究は止むことなく様々な形で行われるようになった。この先に述べるのは、ホメオパシーの発展と科学的正当性のために非常に重要な研究である。

ホメオパシーとその他の療法の結果を比較した研究

1980年代、「The logic of figures or comparative results of homeopathic and other treatmentsホメオパシーとその他の療法の形態もしくは比較した結果の理論」という本が出版された。この本には、ホメオパシー病院とアロパシー病院の、何十もの病態や死亡率を比較したグラフが納められている。ここには猩紅熱、黄熱病、腸チフスなどの流行病に関するデータも収録されている。 病気の種類にもよるが、ホメオパシー病院では通常100人あたりの死亡者数が50~80%少ない。 二重盲検によるホメオパシーの研究は第二次世界大戦中に英国政府の資金提供を受けて行われた。マスタードガスによる火傷を負っている人に、ホメオパシーのレメディーを投与すると、プラセボを投与された人と比較して、明確な改善が見られたことがこの調査でわかっている。1982年の再調査ではこの調査に関する統計学的な正当性も立証されている。2

研究室に於けるエビデンス

ホメオパシーの「超微量」の本質、又は希釈の原則は、科学を信奉する人々からの主な批判の的となって来た。24Xもしくは12C以上、アボガドロ定数を超えるまでに希釈されたレメディーには現物質の分子は1つも無いということに異論のあるホメオパスはいない。しかし、研究室でも臨床でも、この希釈率を超えるホメオパシーレメディーが「明らかな有効性」をこの200年示し続けて来たのだ。
核磁気共鳴(NMR)の研究で、23の異なるレメディーとポーテンシーから、プラセボでは見ることの出来なかった、量子生物学的な活性を示している事を明らかに検知したのだ。このことはホメオパシーのエネルギー的作用が化学的作用を上回っていることを意味する。感覚神経の障害と病理的な反射作用が引き起こす慢性の再発する亜脱臼状態と病気が、劇的に改善するのを、カイロプラクターのように目の当たりにできるのである。 3

抗ウィルス性作用に関する研究

ある二重盲検で、10のうち8つのホメオパシーレメディーが、50~100%、ポーテンシーにより違いが出るが、ニワトリの胚でウィルスの増殖を抑制することがわかった。 4

重金属に関する研究

この研究では、ラットに事前に与えられ蓄積された物質段階の砒素(Arsenic)が、ホメオパシー的なArsenicの投与で除去されたことがわかる。 5

血清コレステロールに関する研究

獣医学の大学の科学者らによると、ホメオパシーのレメディーChel.を毎日2回、大量にコレステロールを含む餌を与えられている兎に投与すると、血清コレステロールの値が下がることがわかった。6

分娩時の問題に関する研究

ホメオパシーのレメディーが、牛の分娩時の問題、豚の死産、牛の乳腺炎を減少させることが出来るかどうかを調査した研究が複数行われている。 7

妊婦にホメオパシーを用いた二重盲検では、分娩にかかる時間と、異常分娩が少なくなることがわかっている。

ホメオパシーのレメディーを投与された女性の平均分娩時間が5.1時間だったのに対して、プラセボ群では8.5時間だった。レメディー群の異常分娩がたったの11.3%だったのに比べて、プラセボ群では40%が異常分娩だった。 8

抗がん作用に関する研究

繊維腫を移植されたマウスのうち77匹を除く52%は、ホメオパシーのレメディーを投与されながら1年以上生存したが、治療を受けなかった77匹は10~15日で死亡した。 9

ペイン・コントロールに関する研究

Hyper.を投与されたげっ歯類は痛みへの反応が抑制されることが、科学者たちの研究でわかった。コントロール群よりも、熱したプレートの上に長くいることができるのだ。鎮痛作用のあるエンドルフィンの作用を阻害するNaloxone(訳注:麻酔拮抗薬)を投与すると、Hyper.の効果は減少する。これは、Hyper.が、(エンドルフィンの)必要な時にエンドルフィンを活性化させることを表している。この実験に使用したげっ歯類は、不快感を感知した時にはいつでも熱したプレートから降りることが可能な状態であった。 10

アレルギーに関する研究

ホメオパシーのレメディーApis.とHistamineに、好塩基球から放出されるアレルギーを起こす化学物質の量を減らす、明確な効果があることを示す研究は複数ある。これは、ホメオパシーがアレルギーに効果があることを示す、1つの理由と捉えることができる。11

免疫機能に関する研究

異物、バクテリア、古くなった細胞を破壊するマクロファージを活性化させる明らかな作用がSil.にあることが、マウスで確認されている。 12

リウマチ性関節炎に関する研究

リウマチ性関節炎の患者に対する二重盲検で、ホメオパシーのレメディーによる治療を受けた患者の82%が一定の症状の改善を経験したのに対して、プラセボ群で同程度の改善が見られたのはたったの21%だった。 13

歯の神経痛に関する研究

抜歯後の痛みがある患者で、ホメオパシーの二重盲検が実施された。ホメオパシーのレメディーArn.とHypericumを投与された患者の76%が痛みから解放された。 14

目眩と吐き気に関する研究

この研究結果は、ホメオパシーのレメディーによって目眩と吐き気を減らすことができるという、統計的にも有意な改善が見込めることを示している。 15

水の記憶理論

フランスの生物学者ジャック・ベンベニストが登場するまで、このように高度に希釈された溶液になぜ効果があるのか、科学的に説明することはできなかった。ベンベニスト教授はパリの研究室で、水が「記憶」するという理論を打ち立てた。水に融け込んでいるのは「記憶」であり、ホメオパシーの効果を発揮しているのが、この「記憶」だと。1988年、ベンベニスト教授はNature誌に自説を裏付ける論文を発表した。彼が行った実験によると、桁外れに希釈した溶液に生理的影響を及ぼす作用があることは明らかだった。こうして「水の記憶」という言葉はホメオパシー関係の人々とベンベニスト教授の説を支持する人々、そしてアレルギーの研究を行っている研究者の間では良く知られた言葉になった。水が記憶を保持しているということを示す主な証拠として、次のことを挙げている。水分子が明らかに他の物質や水面に接していなければ、水分子間の水素結合は非常に寿命が短い(~ps、訳注:ピコセカンド10-12秒)。溶質を取り囲んでいる特定の水素結合のパターンはそう長くは続かない。いったん溶質が取り除かれると、特定のパターンを持った水分子の周囲のクラスターや、水そのものは、過去の無数の溶質のうち、どれを優先させるべきかなどわからなくなっている。最近のNMR核磁気共鳴の調査でも、ホメオパシー的に調剤されたものの中に、安定した(>1ms、>5μ)水のクラスターは見つからなかった。しかし、水素結合の寿命はクラスターの寿命にも同じように影響するのではないということは忘れてはならない。海の波は波として、また、歴史の影響をうけながら大海を往き来しているが、分子の中身は常に変化し続けているのである。また、どのクラスターの平衡濃度も動力学ではなく熱力学に支配されている。ホメオパシーに当てはめるならば、「水の記憶」の概念は、有水エタノールを用いた調剤方法に拡張するべきであろう。水にエタノールが加わったことで、複雑さという重要な深みは増した。水にエタノールが加わった溶液は、想定から大きく外れており、安定にも時間がかかる。16

水酸化物イオン説

ラクトース、水、そしてエタノールの分子は、一般的に-OH(ヒドロキシ基、OH- )群のみを有している。-OH群の酸素原子は、sp3混成のために4つの同等な原子価軌道を持つ。この4つのうち2つは電子対結合と、もう2つの分配されていない孤立電子対を持っている。後者(孤立電子対)は、望み通りのエネルギーレベルに徐々に上がることはあるが、もともとそれほど高いエネルギーレベルにはなく、それゆえ基本的な役割をここで担うことが出来ているのである。有機溶媒のDMSO(ジメチルスルホキシド)にはは孤立電子対はあるが、-OH群は無いため、これを希釈媒体として用いることはできない。このことは、ヒドロキシ基の孤立電子対の役割を明確にしている。 17

共鳴促進説

力のこもった摩砕や、強く打ち付ける震盪がなされるあいだ、溶けている薬剤の分子にある最も外側の電子殻は、繰り返し希釈剤の分子の外側にある電子殻と接近する。このプロセスは、薬剤の分子が持つ科学的に活性状態にある電子のエネルギーレベルに、希釈剤の-OH群の孤立電子対の共鳴促進を誘発する。希釈剤の分子はこのようにして科学的に交換できるエネルギーを獲得し、それがまさに薬剤の分子が持つ科学的特性が薬剤を「ポーテンタイズ」することなのである。ポーテンシーを上げながらの一連の希釈作業のあいだ、元の薬剤の分子はどんどん除去され希釈剤の分子はこの作業によって共鳴を促進され、自発的な希釈剤分子の共鳴促進が広がるのだ。18

神経刺激に関する研究

薬理学の教授Karen Nieberは培養液中にラットの腸を入れ、organic thread(訳注:手術用の縫合糸の一種と思われるが素材が有機なのか、組織に吸収される物なのか不明)を用いて、痙攣による腸の収縮を感知するためのセンサーにつないだ。次に、ラットの腸に激しい痙攣を起こすために、培養液中に刺激(アトロピン)を加えた。すると腸は収縮を起こし、計器は強い痙攣状態にあることを示していた。そこにBelladonnaX90を加えると、腸は弛緩し、計器が示した痙攣の度合いも下がった。このことはホメオパシーは現物質が無くても作用するということを証明している。Nieber教授は2003年にHans Heinrich Reckeweg awardを受賞し、賞金1万ユーロを獲得している。 19

結び

今回ここに紹介した研究(もっとたくさんあるが)は当然、ホメオパシーが確かに科学的システムであり、その効果は論争の余地などないことを証明している。しかし、ホメオパシー界を不必要に嗅ぎ回る無知な輩を黙らせ、科学の専門分野から寄せられる適切な質問に答えるためには、更なる研究が必要なことは言うまでもない。 20

  1. Howard P. Bellows.The test drug proving of the O.O. and L. Society: a reproving of Belladonna (Boston: the American Homoeopathic ophthalmological, otological, and laryngological society, 1906).
  2. Paterson J. "Report on mustard gas experiments." Journal of the American institute of homeopathy. 37(1944): 47-50. 88-92. R.M.M. Owen and G. Ives, "The mustard gas experiments of the British homeopathic society: 1941-1942," proceeding of the 35th international homeopathic congress. 1982, pp.258-259.
  3. Adam Sacks, "Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of homoeopathic remedies," Journal of holistic medicine, 5 (fall-winter 1983): 172-175: Smith RB. And Boericke G.W. " Changes caused by succussion on N.M.R, patterns and bioassay of bradykinin treacetate (BKTA) succussions and dilution journal of the American institute of homoeopathy, 61 (November December 1968): 197-212.
  4. Sigh L.M. and Gupta G. "Antiviral efficacy of homoeopathic drugs against animal viruses," British homeopathic journal, 74(July 1985): 168-174.
  5. Cazin J.C. et al. "A study of the effect of decimal and centesimal dilution of Arsenic on retention and mobilization of Arsenic in the rat," Human toxicology, July 1987.
  6. Baumans V., Bol C.J, Owe Luttikhuis W.M.T. and Beynen A.C. "Does Chelidonium 3x lower serum cholesterol?", British homeopathic journal, 76 (January 1987): 14-15.
  7. Christopher Day. "Control of stillbirths in pigs using homoeopathy," veterinary record, 114 (March 3, 1984): 216 reprinted in American institute of homeopathy, 779(December 1986): 146-147. Christopher Day. "Clinical trials in bovine mastitis: use of nosodes for prevention," British homoeopathic journal, 75(January 1986): 11-15.
  8. Pierre D, Marie Noel Lasserre and Max Tetau. "Preparation a l'accounchement par homeopathie: experimentation en double-insu versus placebo" (Preparation for birth by homoeopathy; experimentation by double-blind versus placebo), Cahrs de Biotherapie. 94 (April 1987): 77-81.
  9. Choudry H. "Cure of cancer in experimental mice with certain biochemic salts," British homoeopathic journal, 69(1980): 168-170.
  10. Keysall G.R., Williamson K.L. and B.D. Tolman. "The testing of some Homoeopathic preparations in rodents," proceedings of the 40th international homeopathic congress (Lyon. France, 1985). Pp. 228-231.
  11. Jean Boiron. Jacky Abecassls and Philippe Belon. "The effects of Hahnemannian potencies of 7C Histaminum and 7C Apis mellifica upon basophil degranulation in allergic patients." Aspects of research in Homoeopathy (Lyon: Boiron, 1983). Pp. 61-66.
  12. Elizabeth Davenas, Bernard Poitevin, and Jacques Benveniste. "Effect on mouse peritoneal macrophages of orally administered very high dilutions of Silica", European ournal of pharmacology 135 (April 1987): 313-319.
  13. Gibson P.G, Gibson L.M., Macneil Ad. Et al. "Homoeopathic therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: evaluation double-blind controlled trial," British journal of clinical pharmacology, 9 (1980): 453-459
  14. Henry Albertini et al. "Homoeopathic treatment of neuralgia using Arnica and Hypericum: a summary of 60 observations," Journal of the American institute of homoeopathy. 78 (September 1985): 126-128.
  15. Claussen C.F, Bergmann, J. Bertora G. and Claussen E. "Homoeopathische komcinatlon bel vertigo and nausea." Arzneim. Frosch/drug res., 34(1984 1791-98.
  16. Butler J.A.V, "The energy and entropy of Hydration of organic compounds," Trans Faraday Soc. 33 (1937) 229-238]. [V. Krautler, M. Muller and P. H. Hunenberger, Conformation, dynamics, solvation and relative stabilities of selected hexopyranoses in water: a molecular dynamics study with the GROMOS 45A4 force field, Carbohydr. Res. 342 (2007) 2097-2124.] [G. Jakli, The H2O-D2O solvent isotope effects on the molar volumes of alkali-chloride solutions at T=(288.15, 298.15 and 308.15) Chem K.J. Thermodynamics 39 (2007) 1589-1600.
  17. Davenas E. et al. Nature 333 (30 June 1988) 816-818.
  18. Smith RB Jr. & Boericke GW. "Modern instrumentation for the evaluation of homoeopathic drug structure." Hahnemannian Gleanings 41 (1974) 99-119. Boiron J & Vinh CLD. Contribution to the study of the physical homoeopathic dilution by Raman laser effect. Hahnemannian Gleanings 43 (1976) 455-467.
  19. ECH GENERAL ASSEMBLY - XVIII Symposium of GIRI 12th to 14th of November 2004 Scientific Report-Chang FY, Lee SD, et al. Rat gastrointestinal motor responses meditated via activaion of neurokinin receptors. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999; 14:39-45. Cristea A, Nicula S, Darie V. Pharmacodynamic effects of very high dilutions of Belladonna on the isolated rat duodenum. In: Bastide M (ed), Signals and Images. Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997:161-170.

②Homeopathy and The Lancet

著者:Peter Fisher

英国エリザベス女王担当の医師ホメオパス ピーター・フィッシャー氏が2006年に「エビデンスに基づく代替医療」誌でホメオパシーはプラシーボ効果以下と結論づけた 2005年ランセット誌の信頼性について批判しています。

タイトル:Homeopathy and The Lancet 著者:Peter Fisher
(Director of Research, Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital)

英語でのレポート原文はこちらのサイトからもご覧いただけます。

ピーター・フィッシャー氏

なお、ピーター・フィッシャー氏は、英国下院科学技術委員会が出したホメオパシーの有効性を否定し英国健康保険サービスからホメオパシーをはずすべきだとする調査レポートと勧告に反対するために英国会内で開かれたレセプションにもゲストとして参加しスピーチを行っています。

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 March; 3(1): 145-147.
Published online 2006 January 26. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nek007.
PMCID: PMC1375230
Copyright (c) The Author (2006). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

Homeopathy and The Lancet Peter Fisher Director of Research, Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital, Great Ormond Street, London WC1N 3HR, UK

For reprints and all correspondence: Peter Fisher, Director of Research, Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital, Great Ormond Street, London WC1N 3HR, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 20 7391 8890; Fax: +44 (0) 20 7391 8829; E-mail: Peter.fisher@uclh.nhs.uk The online version of this article has been published under an open access model. Users are entitled to use, reproduce, disseminate, or display the open access version of this article for non-commercial purposes provided that: the original authorship is properly and fully attributed; the Journal and Oxford University Press are attributed as the original place of publication with the correct citation details given; if an article is subsequently reproduced or disseminated not in its entirety but only in part or as a derivative work this must be clearly indicated. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Other Sections

IntroductionThe Meta- AnalysisTransparency, Sensitivity and External ValidityUpper Respiratory Tract InfectionsConclusionReferencesIntroduction The Lancet of August 27, 2005 featured a cluster of articles highly critical of homeopathy which attracted considerable media attention. The media reports echoed The Lancet's press release: 'homeopathy is no better than placebo'. The centerpiece was a meta-analysis of clinical trials of homeopathy compared with clinical trials of allopathy (conventional medicine) (1). The first author is Aijing Shang, but the leader of the research group is Prof. Matthias Egger of the Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Berne, Switzerland. The meta-analysis formed part of the Complementary Medicine Evaluation Programme (Programm Evaluation Komplementarmedizin, PEK) financed by the Swiss Federal government. The international review board of PEK has publicly protested at political interference in the scientific process: 'There is a consensus among the review board members that the final PEK process deviated from what would have been expected by conventional standards. Especially disconcerting was the fact that the products of the PEK process-health technology assessment (HTA) reports, single description of studies, manuscripts for publication and the condensed final report-were sent to the board members but no discussion, comment, or review was solicited by the responsible agencies' (2). The meta-analysis was accompanied by a short, anonymous editorial entitled 'The end of homoeopathy' calling for 'doctors to be bold and honest with their patients about homeopathy's lack of benefit, and with themselves about the failings of modern medicine' (3); and a more thoughtful commentary from the Dutch epidemiologist Jan Vandenbroucke, reflecting on the 'growth of truth', including the relationship between bias, background knowledge and the concordance of clinical results with laboratory science findings (4). Vandenbroucke concludes that the proof of the pudding is in the eating: the ultimate proof of the validity of a scientific or medical idea is extent to which it changes reality. The same issue of The Lancet featured a leak of the World Health Organisation's (WHO) draft report on homeopathy. The WHO document was apparently leaked to The Lancet by Dutch and Belgian doctors hostile to homeopathy; their comments and the (hostile) comments of Prof. Edzard Ernst of the University of Exeter were published. Dr Xiaorui Zhang, Traditional Medicine Coordinator of WHO, who is responsible for the report, was also interviewed, but declined to comment on a leaked, confidential draft. This leak came only 2 days after The Times of London published, as its front page lead, a remarkably similar story: a leak of the Smallwood Enquiry on The Role of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the NHS commissioned by The Prince of Wales' Foundation for Integrated Health. It is ironic that the editor of The Lancet, Dr Richard Horton, wrote to The Times accusing Prof. Ernst of having 'broken every code of scientific behaviour' for leaking the draft report of the Smallwood Enquiry (and incidentally describing complementary medicine as 'a largely pernicious influence… preying on the fears and uncertainties of the sick'), while simultaneously doing the same to the WHO report in his own journal! Dr Horton also wrote an open letter to the UK Secretary of State for Health, Patricia Hewitt and the Chairman of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) Prof. Sir Michael Rawlings, calling for the use of homeopathy in the NHS to be reviewed in light of this publication.

Other Sections

IntroductionThe Meta- AnalysisTransparency, Sensitivity and External ValidityUpper Respiratory Tract InfectionsConclusionReferencesThe Meta-Analysis The meta-analysis at the centre of the controversy is based on 110 placebo-controlled clinical trials of homeopathy and 110 clinical trials of allopathy (conventional medicine), which are said to be matched. These were reduced to 21 trials of homeopathy and 9 of conventional medicine of 'higher quality' and further reduced to 8 and 6 trials, respectively, which were 'larger, higher quality'. The final analysis which concluded that 'the clinical effects of homoeopathy are placebo effects' was based on just the eight 'larger, higher quality' clinical trials of homeopathy. The Lancet's press release did not mention this, instead giving the impression that the conclusions were based on all 110 trials. The criteria for the matching of the homeopathic and conventional trials were not clearly stated, and it is evident from the numbers above that the clinical trials of homeopathy and conventional medicine were not, as claimed, well matched-the homeopathic trials were generally of better quality. And this is a crucial parameter [as Shang et al. (1) acknowledge]; it is well established that high quality trials are less likely to be positive than those of lower quality. Because of the individualization involved, it is difficult to do large-scale trials of homeopathy (again this is evident from the figures above), so the final sample is unlikely to be representative of trials of homeopathy. An example is a study that may have been included in the final eight, which looked at the use of a homeopathic medicine for prophylaxis of influenza, an indication for which it is not recommended, and obscured the identity of the homeopathic medication (5). However, a Cochrane Review has concluded that it is probably effective for treatment (as opposed to prevention) of flu-like illnesses (6). A number of similar instances could be cited, but since we do not know which studies are under discussion, there is little point.

Other Sections

IntroductionThe Meta- AnalysisTransparency, Sensitivity and External ValidityUpper Respiratory Tract InfectionsConclusionReferencesTransparency, Sensitivity and External Validity One of the most serious criticisms is the complete lack of transparency: we have no idea which eight trials were included in the final, damning, analysis. The literature references are not given, nor any information on the diagnoses, numbers of patients, etc., nor can these be deduced from the article. Prof. Egger has refused several requests to disclose the identity of the eight trials. This is not even a matter of scientific method, but of natural justice: the accused has the right to know the evidence against him. Meta-analysis should incorporate sensitivity analysis. In this case the obvious sensitivity analysis is to look at the 21 trials of 'higher quality', particularly since it appears that the criterion 'larger' appears to have been added retrospectively to 'higher quality'. But the result of this analysis was not published. This meta-analysis assessed quality purely in terms of internal validity. Internal validity is the extent to which a trial measures what it purports to measure; external validity the extent to which what it measures is meaningful in the real world. This is an important concept, best explained by an example. A clinical trial of homeopathy in childhood asthma by White et al. (7), published in Thorax in 2003, was reported as showing that homeopathy is ineffective. This trial was of high internal validity because, among other things, it used a predefined primary outcome measure: quality of life as measured by the childhood asthma questionnaire. The results showed no difference in the quality of life scores, although the secondary outcome measures (such as severity and time lost from school), consistently favored homeopathy over placebo. However, because quality of life was the primary outcome, the authors reached a negative conclusion. But, as was pointed out several times in the ensuing correspondence, this conclusion was meaningless because of a 'ceiling effect': the children had normal quality of life when they entered the study, and this could not have been expected to improve further! (8-11) This study was of high internal validity but very low external validity, but would have been classified 'high quality' in The Lancet meta-analysis.

Other Sections

IntroductionThe Meta- AnalysisTransparency, Sensitivity and External ValidityUpper Respiratory Tract InfectionsConclusionReferencesUpper Respiratory Tract Infections Shang et al. (1) state that 'eight trials of homoeopathic remedies in acute infections of the upper respiratory tract … indicated a substantial beneficial effect … sensitivity analyses might suggest that there is robust evidence that the treatment under investigation works. However, the biases that are prevalent in these publications, as shown by our study, might promote the conclusion that the results cannot be trusted'. They state that eight studies is too few to question their conclusion about the whole set of publications. Their conclusion about the whole set, however, was also based on eight studies. Is eight enough for a conclusion or not? Or does it depend on what that conclusion is? But perhaps the most telling single criticism of this meta-analysis is that it fails, on multiple counts, to meet the generally accepted standards for meta-analysis-the QUOROM statement (Quality of Reports of Meta-Analyses of Randomised Controlled Trials), published in The Lancet itself in 1999 (12). The main failings are those outlined above, although there are others. The implausibility of homeopathy is an important Bayesian prior for Shang et al. (1), but they fail to quote emerging evidence for in vitro activity of ultramolecular dilutions (13,14) which has important implications for the implausibility of the claims made for homeopathy. Conclusion This meta-analysis is subject to fundamental criticisms. Regrettably, the media have already reported The Lancet's version of the story. Homeopathy's popularity is growing worldwide despite many such attacks. To paraphrase Mark Twain, reports of the death of homeopathy are much exaggerated: the facts simply are incompatible with The Lancet's claim that the end of homeopathy is nigh. Regrettably, this attack will only widen the divisions. The way forward is open, transparent science, not opaque, biased analysis and rhetoric.

Other Sections

IntroductionThe Meta- AnalysisTransparency, Sensitivity and External ValidityUpper Respiratory Tract InfectionsConclusionReferencesReferences 1. Shang A, Huwiler-Muntener K, Nartey L, Juni P, Dorig S, Sterne JA, et al. Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathy. Lancet. 2005;366:726-32. [PubMed] 2. Walach H, Linde K, Eichenberger R, Stalder H, Kristensen FB, Kleijnen J. Summary Consensus Statement of the PEK Review Board regarding the PEK process and the PEK products. 2005. 27th September 2005. 3. Editorial. The end of homeopathy. Lancet. 2005;366:690. 4. Vandenbroucke JP. Homoeopathy and 'the growth of truth' Lancet. 2005;366:691-2. [PubMed]
5. Attena F, Toscano G, Agozzino E, del Giudice N. A randomized trial in the prevention of influenza-like syndromes by homeopathic management. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 1995;43:380-2. 6. Vickers A, Smith C. Homoeopathic Oscillococcinum for preventing and treating influenza and influenza-like syndromes. (Cochrane review) 2005. Cochrane Library 2005:3. 7. White A, Slade P, Hunt C, Hart A, Ernst E. Individualised homeopathy as an adjunct in the treatment of childhood asthma: a randomised placebo controlled trial. Thorax. 2003;58:317-21. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
8. Dantas F. Homeopathy in childhood asthma. Thorax. 2003;58:826. [PubMed]
9. Brien SB, Lewith G. Homeopathy in childhood asthma. Thorax. 2003;58:826-7. [PubMed]
10. Fisher P, Chatfield K, Mathie R. Homeopathy in childhood asthma. Thorax. 2003;58:827. [PubMed]
11. Leckridge R. Homeopathy in childhood asthma. Thorax. 2003;58:827-8. [PubMed]
12. Moher D, Cook DJ, Eastwood S, Olkin I, Rennie D, Stroup DF. Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: the QUOROM statement. Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses. Lancet. 1999;354:1896-900. [PubMed]
13. Belon P, Cumps J, Ennis M, Mannaioni PF, Roberfroid M, Sainte-Laudy J, et al. Histamine dilutions modulate basophil activation. Inflamm Res. 2004;53:181-8. [PubMed]
14. Rey L. Thermoluminesence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride. Physica A. 2003;323:67-74.


Articles from Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM are provided here courtesy of Hindawi Publishing Corporation

③『高希釈された抗血清中の抗免疫グロブリンE(抗IgE抗体)によって誘発されるヒト好塩基球の脱顆粒化』

「ネイチャー」1988年
ベンベニスト博士

④ベルファースト・クイーンズ大学のエニス(Ennis)教授によるベンベニストと同様の研究、およびフランス、イタリア、ベルギー、オランダの別々の4大学で行われた追実験

ベルファースト・クイーンズ大学のエニス(Ennis)教授によるベンベニストと同様の研究、およびフランス、イタリア、ベルギー、オランダの別々の4大学で行われた追実験により(Belon et al1999)、ベンベニストの研究結果の基本的妥当性が確認されています。エニス教授自身も実験を2回行っています(Brown &Ennis 2001)。興味深いことには、4 大学による追実験はベンベニストの研究の欠陥が明らかになることを想定して正確に科学的な評価を行おうと、クイーンズ大学が扇動し、その調整の下に実施されたものです。ベンベニストの研究結果の有効性と第三者による再現可能性が明らかにされたことは、ホメオパシーの基礎研究にとって非常に大きな意味をもちます(Belon2004:Fisher 2004)。

⑤『ニューサイエンティスト』誌(一九九七年一〇月一八日号)の記事への回答

ブライアン・ジョセフソン博士(Brian Josephson)(一九四〇) 『ホメオパシーに関する主張に対してあなたからお寄せいただいたコメントについてです。希釈を繰り返すことで溶液中の溶質分子がほぼゼロに等しいほど微量になっているということが主な批判点でありますが、この指摘は的外れです。なぜなら、ホメオパシーのレメディーを推奨している人々は、ホメオパシーが効くのは水中に存在する分子の作用ではなく、水の構造に変化が生じたためだと考えているからです。
単純に考えると、水は液体であるため、そのような観念に合致するような構造をもたないのではないかと思われるかもしれません。しかし通常の液体のように流れるのに顕微鏡的な距離においては秩序だった構造を維持する液晶の例などを考えれば、そのような考え方には限界があります。まさにこの点を考慮に入れるなら、わたしの知る限り、ホメオパシーに対する反論として有効なものはいまだかつて存在していません。
これに関連するテーマとして「水の記憶」という現象があります。ジャック・ベンベニストとその同僚のヨレーネ・トーマス、さらにその他の研究者も、この現象を経験的に証明したと主張しています。もしそれが確かだとすれば、むしろホメオパシーそのものよりも大きな意味合いをもつでしょうし、また、そうした主張をとりあえず検証してみるどころか、手に余るとただやり過ごしてきた現代の科学界の見識の狭さを証明することにもなるでしょう(Josephson, 1997)。』

⑥~⑧

⑥新しい実験結果によると、プルーバーは薬物のプラセボより原物質によく反応する。

H. Walach
ABSTRACT: 精神薬理学のジャーナル、Vol.22、No.5、543~552ページ(2008年)
DOI: 10.1177/0269881108091259
2つの二重盲検のプラセボ対照実験の結果によると、ホメオパシーによる病気を発症させる実験(プルービング)は、特有でない症状より特有な症状を引き起こす。
H. Walach

英国ノースハンプトンにある英国ノースハンプトン大学社会科学学部および情報生物学サミュエリ研究所のヨーロッパ支社harald.walach@northampton.ac.uk

ドイツのフライブルク市にあるフライブルク大学病院環境医学研究所および疫学病院内の補完医学の評価のためのアカデミック部門
H.Mollinger

スイスGuttingen、ヘルスセンターソクラテス J. Sherr Malvern, Worcester, UK R. Schneider
ドイツのオスナブリュック市にあるオスナブリュック大学人間科学学部

私たちは、二重盲検法により、ホメオパシーによる病気を発症させる実験(プルービング)を2つ並行して2つの別々の場所で実施した。この実験の目的は、健康なボランティアが報告した症状がプラセボとホメオパシーのレメディーの場合で著しく異なるかどうかを見極めるものだった。1つ目の実験は2群試験で Ozoneとプラセボを比較したものだった。2つ目の実験は3群試験でOzone、Iridiumとプラセボを比較したものだった。3群試験でOzone またはIridiumを摂ったプルーバーの方がプラセボを摂ったプルーバーよりレメディー固有の症状が顕著にみられた。また、Ozoneとプラセボを比較した2つの実験でも同じ結果だった。したがって、私たちは、ホメオパシーのレメディーはレメディー特有でない症状よりもレメディー特有の症状を引き起こすと結論付けた。さらに、一つのレメディーの症状がもう片方の実験でも同じように現れたことから、上記の結果は、いくらかノンクラシカルなパターンを示した。これはホメオパシーの体系におけるもつれを示唆する。

キーワード:特有でない症状、病気を発症させる実験、プラセボ

原文へのリンク

Homeopathic pathogenetic trials produce more specific than non-specific symptoms: results from two double-blind placebo controlled trials
1. H. Walach
1. School of Social Sciences and European Office of the Samueli Institute for Information Biology, University of Northampton, Northampton, UK, harald.walach@northampton.ac.uk, Academic Section on the Evaluation of Complementary Medicine, Institute for Environmental Medicine and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
1. H. Mollinger
1. Health Center Socrates, Guttingen, Switzerland
1. J. Sherr 1. Malvern, Worcester, UK
1. R. Schneider
1. Department of Human Sciences, University Osnabruck, Osnabruck, Germany Abstract
We conducted two parallel, blinded homeopathic pathogenetic trials conducted at two different sites to determine whether symptoms reported by healthy volunteers were significantly different for homeopathic remedies than for placebos. Study 1 used a two-armed design, testing ozone against placebo. Study 2 used a three-armed design, testing ozone and iridium against placebo. We found significantly more remedy-specific symptoms in provers taking ozone or iridium than in provers taking placebo in the three-armed trial and in both trials pooled for ozone and placebo. We, therefore, conclude that homeopathic remedies produce more symptoms typical for a remedy than non-typical symptoms. The results furthermore suggest a somewhat non-classical pattern because symptoms of one remedy appear to be mimicked in the other trial arm. This might be indicative of entanglement in homeopathic systems.

⑦参照:ホメオパシーの科学的骨組み:科学的証拠に基づいたホメオパシー

著者:Dr Michel Van Wassenhoven
要約:この論文は、膨大な文献の再調査を通して、ホメオパシー療法の科学的枠組みのすべての重要な側面について熟考し、各側面の科学的証拠の水準について客観的に考察することを目的としている。証拠の水準として考えられるもの:
1)異分析および/または文献の体系的でポジティブな調査が含まれている;
2a)複数の、ポジティブな、ランダム化比較試験{か ひかく しけん};
2b)いくつかのポジティブなランダム化比較試験;
3a)ポジティブな複数のコホート研究;
3b)いくつかのコホートを含むポジティブな研究;
4)専門家の(臨床および日常的な症例における)見解。 結論は明確である:ホメオパシーは医療行為の枠組みに含まれなければならず、公衆衛生にとって不可欠でさえある。

参照

Scientific framework of homeopathy: evidence-based homeopathy
Michel Van Wassenhoven

Abstract This paper aims at considering all important aspects of the scientific framework of homeopathic practice, looking at the levels of scientific evidence of each aspect in an objective way, through an extensive review of literature. Levels of evidence considered are: I) existence of meta-analyses and/or systematic positive reviews of literature; IIa) multiple positive randomized controlled trials (RCTs); IIb) some positive RCTs; IIIa) positive multiple cohorts studies; IIIb) positive studies with some cohorts; IV) opinion of experts (clinical and daily practice cases). Conclusions are clear: homeopathy must stay within the framework of medical practice, and it is even a necessity for public health.
Keywords: Evidence-Based medicine, Homeopathy, Scientific framework, Literature review.
Marco cientifico da homeopatia: homeopatia baseada em evidencias
Resumo O presente artigo aborda aspectos importantes do marco cientifico da pratica homeopatica, focando os niveis de evidencia de cada um deles de maneira objetica, atraves de uma revisao extensa da literatura. Os niveis de evidencia considerados sao: I) existencia de meta-analises e/ou revisoes sistematicas positivas da literatura; IIa) multiplos estudos randomizados controlados (RCTs) positivos; IIb) alguns RCTs positivos; IIIa) estudos de coortes multiplas positivos; IIIb) estudos com algumas coortes positivos; IV) opiniao de expertos (casos clinicos da pratica cotidiana). As conclusoes sao claras: a homeopatia deve permanecer dentro do marco da pratica medica, sendo, inclusive, uma necessidade para a saude publica.
Palavras-chave: Medicina Baseada em Evidencias, Homeopatia, Estrutura cientifica, Revisao de literatura.
Marco cientifico de la homeopatia: homeopatia basada en evidencia
Resumen
Este articulo aborda aspectos importantes del marco cientifico de la practica homeopatica, enfocando los niveles de evidencia de cada aspecto, de modo objetivo, mediante una revision extensiva de la literatura. Los niveles de evidencia considerados son: I) existencia de meta-analisis y/o revisiones sistematicas positivas de la literatura; IIa) multiples ensayos randomizados controlados (RCTs) positivos; IIb) algunos RCTs positivos; IIIa) estudios con cohortes multiplas positivos; IIIb) estudios con algunas cohortes positivos; IV) opinion de expertos (casos clinicos de la practica cotidiana). Las conclusiones son claras: la homeopatia debe permanecer dentro del marco de la practica medica, siendo, inclusive, una necesidad para la salud publica.
Palabras-clave: Medicina enbasada en evidencia, homeopatia, estructura cientifica, Revision de la literatura.
Correspondence author: Michel van Wassenhoven,michelvw@homeopathy.be How to cite this article: Wassenhoven MV. Scientific framework of homeopathy: Evidence-based Homeopathy. Int J High Dilution Res [online]. 2008 [cited YYYY Mmm DD]; 7(23): 72-92. Available from:

⑧ホメオパシーはアトピーのための標準的な治療法として「有効」であると立証された

ホメオパシーと従来の治療法を比較した最初のコホート研究では、子供のアトピーにおいてホメオパシーが従来の治療法と同等の効果をもたらすと結論付けられている。118人の子供を対象としたドイツの調査によると、一般医による従来の治療はホメオパシー療法と同等に症状を緩和し生活の質を向上させる。上記の論文を閲覧したい場合は、下記のリンクでダウンロード可能である。

Eczema Trial
Homoeopathic versus conventional treatment of children with eczema: A comparative cohort study
T. Keila, , , C.M. Witta, S. Rolla, W. Vancea, K. Webera, K. Wegscheiderb and S.N. Willicha aInstitute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charite University Medical Center Berlin, D-10098 Berlin, Germany bInstitute of Statistics and Econometrics, University of Hamburg, Germany
Available online 27 December 2006.
Summary
Objectives
To assess, over a period of 12 months, whether homoeopathic treatment could influence eczema signs/symptoms and quality of life (QoL) compared with conventional treatment.
Design
Prospective multi-centre cohort study.
Setting
Children with eczema aged 1-16 years were recruited from primary care practices.
Interventions
Conventional versus homoeopathic treatment.
Outcome measures
Patients (or parents) assessed eczema symptoms by numerical rating scales as well as disease-specific Atopie Lebensqualitaets-Fragebogen (ALF) and general quality of life (KINDL, KITA) at 0, 6 and 12 months.
Results
A total of 118 children were included: 54 from homoeopathic (mean age ± S.D. was 5.1 ± 3.3 years; 56% boys) and 64 from conventional practices (6.2 ± 3.8 years; 61% boys). Eczema symptoms (assessed by patients or their parents) improved from 0 to 12 months for both treatment options, but did not differ between the two groups: 3.5-2.5 versus 3.4-2.1; p = 0.447 (adjusted). Disease-related quality of life improved in both groups similarly. In the subgroup of children aged 8-16 years the general quality of life showed a better trend for conventional treatment compared with homoeopathic treatment (p = 0.030).
Conclusions
This observational study is the first long-term prospective investigation to compare homoeopathic and conventional treatment of eczema in children. Over a period of 12 months, both therapy groups improved similarly regarding perception of eczema symptoms (assessed by patients or parents) and disease-related quality of life. Keywords: Atopic dermatitis; Atopic eczema; Cohort study; Homoeopathy
Article Outline
Background
Methods
Study design and subjects
Study protocol
Statistical methods
Results
Patients
Severity of symptoms
Eczema-related quality of life
General health-related quality of life
Safety
Discussion
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Figure 1. (A) Eczema symptoms, assessed by patients or parents (adjusted). (B) Eczema signs/symptoms assessed by physicians (adjusted). Means and corresponding 95% CI from repeated-measurement models adjusted for additional covariates (sex, age, parent's educational level, logarithm of symptom duration and interaction age × sex). n, see Table 2.
View Within Article

Figure 2. Eczema-related quality of life (ALF-score) for all children. Means and corresponding 95% CI from repeated-measurement models adjusted for additional covariates (sex, age, parent's educational level, logarithm of symptom duration and interaction age × sex).
View Within Article
Table 1. Baseline characteristics of study participants
View Within ArticleTable 2. Eczema signs/symptoms assessed by patients (or parents) and physicians on a numerical rating scale from 0 (=no symptoms) to 10 (=worst)
View Within ArticleTable 3. Eczema-related and general health-related quality of life scores; unadjusted and adjusted means and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from repeated-measurement models (adjusted for sex, age, parent's educational level, logarithm of symptom duration and interaction age × sex)
View Within Article Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 30 450529044/450529002;
fax: +49 30 450529902.

⑨アリゾナ大学薬学部 Iris R. Bell 医学博士による ホメオパシーのエビデンス集

ホメオパシーの有効性を実証した100以上の論文(エビデンス)がリストアップされています。
※引用元アドレス

Aickin M. The end of biomedical journals: there is madness in their methods. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2005; 11 (5):755-7.
Aickin M. Participant-centered analysis in complementary and alternative medicine comparative trials. J Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2003; 9 (6):949-57.
Aickin M. Separation tests for early-phase CAM comparative trials. Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine 2004; 1 (4):225-31.
Becker-Witt C, Weibhuhn T.E.R., Ludtke, R., Willich, S.N. Quality assessment of physical research in homeopathy. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2003; 9 (1):113-32.
Bell IR. All evidence is equal, but some evidence is more equal than others: can logic prevail over emotion in the homeopathy debate? J Altern Complement Med. 2005; 11 (5):763-9.
Bell IR. Evidence-based homeopathy: empirical questions and methodological considerations for homeopathic clinical research. American Journal of Homeopathic Medicine 2003; 96 (1):17-31.
Bell IR, Baldwin CM, Schwartz GE. Translating a nonlinear systems theory model for homeopathy into empirical tests. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine. 2002a; 8 (3):58-66.
Bell IR, Caspi O, Schwartz GE et al. Integrative medicine and systemic outcomes research: issues in the emergence of a new model for primary health care. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2002b; 162 (2):133-40.
Bell IR, Koithan M. Models for the study of whole systems. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2006; 5 (4):293-307.
Bell IR, Lewis DA, 2nd, Brooks AJ et al. Individual differences in response to randomly assigned active individualized homeopathic and placebo treatment in fibromyalgia: implications of a double-blinded optional crossover design. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2004a; 10 (2):269-83.
Bell IR, Lewis DA, 2nd, Brooks AJ et al. Improved clinical status in fibromyalgia patients treated with individualized homeopathic remedies versus placebo. Rheumatology 2004b; 43 (5):577-82.
Bell IR, Lewis DA, 2nd, Lewis SE et al. EEG alpha sensitization in individualized homeopathic treatment of fibromyalgia. International Journal of Neuroscience 2004c; 114 (9):1195-220.
Bell IR, Lewis DAI, Schwartz GE et al. Electroencephalographic cordance patterns distinguish exceptional clinical responders with fibromyalgia to individualized homeopathic medicines. J Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2004d; 10 (2):285-99.
Bell IR, Walsh, M., Russek, L.G.S., Schwartz, G.E.R. Proposed applications of conventional research concepts and tools to homeopathic clinical research. Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy 1999; 92 (3):111-28.
Bellavite P. Complexity science and homeopathy: a synthetic overview. Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy. 2003; 92 (4):203-12. Bellavite P, Conforti A, Pontarollo F et al. Immunology and homeopathy. 2. Cells of the immune system and inflammation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2006; 3 (1):13-24.
Bellavite P, Signorini, A. The Emerging Science of Homeopathy. Complexity, Biodynamics, and Nanopharmacology. 2nd ed. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books; 2002. 408 pp. p.
Bertani S, Lussignoli S, Andrioli G et al. Dual effects of a homeopathic mineral complex on carrageenan-induced oedema in rats. British Homoeopathic Journal 1999; 88 (3):101-5.
Betti L, Lazzarato L, Trebbi G et al. Effects of homeopathic arsenic on tobacco plant resistance to tobacco mosaic virus. Theoretical suggestions about system variability, based on a large experimental data set. Homeopathy 2003; 92 (4):195-202.
Bikker AP, Mercer SW, Reilly D. A pilot prospective study on the consultation and relational empathy, patient enablement, and health changes over 12 months in patients going to the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital. J Altern Complement Med. 2005; 11 (4):591-600.
Biswas SJ, Pathak S, Bhattacharjee N et al. Efficacy of the potentized homeopathic drug, Carcinosin 200, fed alone and in combination with another drug, Chelidonium 200, in amelioration of p-dimethylaminoazobenzene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. J Altern Complement Med 2005; 11 (5):839-54.
Bootzin RR, Bailey ET. Understanding placebo, nocebo, and iatrogenic treatment effects. J Clin Psychology 2005; 61 (7):871-80.
Brizzi M, Lazzarato L, Nani D et al. A biostatistical insight into the As(2)O(3) high dilution effects on the rate and variability of wheat seedling growth. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2005; 12 (5):277-83.
Caspi O, Bell IR. One size does not fit all: aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) as a conceptual framework for outcome research. Part I. What is ATI research? Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2004a; 10 (3):580-6.
Caspi O, Bell IR. One size does not fit all: aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) as a conceptual framework for outcome research. Part II. Research designs and their application. . Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2004b; 10 (4):698-705.
Caulfield T, DeBow S. A systematic review of how homeopathy is represented in conventional and CAM peer reviewed journals. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2005; 5 (1):12.
Chaplin MF. The Memory of Water: an overview. Homeopathy. 2007; 96 (3):143-50
Chapman EH, Weintraub RJ, Milburn MA et al. Homeopathic treatment of mild traumatic brain injury: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1999; 14 (6):521-42.
Coffey DS. Self-organization, complexity, and chaos: the new biology for medicine. Nature Medicine. 1998; 4 (8):882-5.
Conforti A, Bellavite P, Bertani S et al. Rat models of acute inflammation: a randomized controlled study on the effects of homeopathic remedies. BMC Complement Altern Med 2007; 7:1.
Dean ME, Coulter MK, Fisher P et al. Reporting data on homeopathic treatments (RedHot): a supplement to CONSORT. J Altern Complement Med 2007; 13 (1):19-23. Eizayaga FX, Aguejouf O, Belon P et al. Platelet aggregation in portal hypertension and its modification by ultra-low doses of aspirin. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb 2005; 34 (1):29-34. Eizayaga FX, Aguejouf O, Desplat V et al. Modifications produced by indomethacin and L-NAME in the effect of ultralow-dose aspirin on platelet activity in portal hypertension. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb 2006; 35 (5):357-63.
Elia V, Napoli E, Germano R. The 'Memory of Water': an almost deciphered enigma. Dissipative structures in extremely dilute aqueous solutions. Homeopathy. 2007; 96 (3):163-9.
Elia V, Niccoli, M. New physico-chemical properties of extremely diluted aqueous solutions. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2004; 75:815-36.
Elia V, Niccoli, M. Thermodynamics of extremely diluted aqueous solutions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1999; 879:241-8.
Endler PC, Pongratz W, Kastberger G et al. The effect of highly diluted agitated thyroxine on the climbing activity of frogs. Vet Hum Toxicol 1994; 36 (1):56-9.
Endler PC, Pongratz W, Smith CW et al. Non-molecular information transfer from thyroxine to frogs with regard to homeopathic toxicology. Veterinary & Human Toxicology. 1995; 37 (3):259-60.
Endler PC, Pongratz, W., van Wijk, R., Wiegant, F.A.C., Waltl, K., Gehrer, M., Hilgers, H. A zoological example on ultra high dilution research. Energetic coupling between the dilution and the organism in a model of amphibia. In: PC Endler, Schulte, J., editor, translator and editor Ultra High Dilution. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1994; p. 39-68.
Fisher P. Homeopathy and The Lancet. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2006; 3 (1):145-7.
Frei H, Everts R, von Ammon K et al. Randomised controlled trials of homeopathy in hyperactive children: treatment procedure leads to an unconventional study design Experience with open-label homeopathic treatment preceding the Swiss ADHD placebo controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial. Homeopathy 2007; 96 (1):35-41.
Frei H, Everts R, von Ammon K, Kaufmann F, Walther D, Hsu-Schmitz SF, Collenberg M, Fuhrer K, Hassink R, Steinlin M, Thurneysen A. Homeopathic treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. Eur J Pediatr. 2005; 164 (12):758-67.
Frei H, Thurneysen A, von Ammon K. Methodological difficulties in homeopathic treatment of children with ADD/ADHD. J Altern Complement Med 2006a; 12 (2):104; author reply Frei H, Thurneysen A. Treatment for hyperactive children: homeopathy and methylphenidate compared in a family setting. British Homoeopathic Journal 2001; 90 (4):183-8.
Frei H, von Ammon K, Thurneysen A. Treatment of hyperactive children: increased efficiency through modifications of homeopathic diagnostic procedure. Homeopathy. 2006b; 95 (3):163-70.
Frenkel M, Hermoni D. Effects of homeopathic intervention on medication consumption in atopic and allergic disorders. Altern Ther Health Med 2002; 8 (1):76-9. Goldstein MS, Glik, D. Use of and satisfaction with homeopathy in a patient population. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine 1998; 4 (2):60-5. Guthlin C, Lange O, Walach H. Measuring the effects of acupuncture and homoeopathy in general practice: an uncontrolled prospective documentation approach. BMC Public Health 2004; 4 (1):4.
Haidvogl M, Riley DS, Heger M, Brien S, Jong M, Fischer M, Lewith GT, Jansen G, Thurneysen AE. Homeopathic and conventional treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints: a comparative study on outcome in the primary care setting. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007; 2;7:7. Honda K, Jacobson JS. Use of complementary and alternative medicine among United States adults: the influences of personality, coping strategies, and social support. Preventive Medicine 2005; 40 (1):46-53. Hyland ME, Lewith GT. Oscillatory effects in a homeopathic clinical trial: an explanation using complexity theory, and implications for clinical practice. Homeopathy 2002; 91 (3):145-9.
Jacobs J, Jimenez LM, Gloyd SS et al. Treatment of acute childhood diarrhea with homeopathic medicine: a randomized clinical trial in Nicaragua. Pediatrics. 1994; 93 (5):719-25.
Jacobs J, Jimenez LM, Malthouse S et al. Homeopathic treatment of acute childhood diarrhea: results from a clinical trial in Nepal. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2000; 6 (2):131-9.
Jacobs J, Jonas WB, Jimenez-Perez M et al. Homeopathy for childhood diarrhea: combined results and metaanalysis from three randomized, controlled clinical trials. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2003; 22 (3):229-34.
Jacobs J, Williams AL, Girard C et al. Homeopathy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot randomized-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med 2005; 11 (5):799-806.
Jonas W, Lin Y, Tortella F. Neuroprotection from glutamate toxicity with ultra-low dose glutamate. Neuroreport 2001; 12 (2):335-9.
Jonas W, Lin, Y., Williams, A., Tortella, F., Tuma, R. Treatment of experimental stroke with low-dose glutamate and homeopathic Arnica montana. Perfusion 1999a; 12:452-62.
Jonas WB. Do homeopathic nosodes protect against infection? An experimental test. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine 1999b; 5 (5):36-40.
Jonas WB. The future of hormesis: what is the clinical relevance to hormesis? Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 2001; 31 (4-5):655-8.
Jonas WB, Kaptchuk TJ, Linde K. A critical overview of homeopathy. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2003; 138 (5):393-9.
Jutte R, Riley D. A review of the use and role of low potencies in homeopathy. Complement Ther Med 2005; 13 (4):291-6.
Kundu SN, Mitra K, Khuda Bukhsh AR. Efficacy of a potentized homeopathic drug (Arsenicum-Aalbum-30) in reducing cytotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: IV. Pathological changes, protein profiles, and content of DNA and RNA. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 2000; 8 (3):157-65.
Lamont J. Homeopathic treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A controlled study. British Homoeopathic Journal 1997; 86:196-200.
Langman MJS. Homeopathy trials: reason for good ones but are they warranted? Lancet 1997; 350:825.
Lewith GT, Watkins AD, Hyland ME et al. Use of ultramolecular potencies of allergen to treat asthmatic people allergic to house dust mite: double blind randomised controlled clinical trial. BMJ 2002; 324 (7336):520-3
Linde K, Clausius N, Ramirez G et al. Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Lancet 1997; 350:834-43.
Linde K, Jonas WB, Melchart D et al. The methodological quality of randomized controlled trials of homeopathy, herbal medicines and acupuncture. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 30 (3):526-31.
Lussignoli S, Bertani S, Metelmann H et al. Effect of Traumeel S, a homeopathic formulation, on blood-induced inflammation in rats. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 1999; 7 (4):225-30.
Mallick P, Mallick JC, Guha B et al. Ameliorating effect of microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album, on arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med 2003; 3:7.
Marotta D, Marini A, Banaudha K et al. Non-linear effects of cycloheximide in glutamate-treated cultured rat cerebellar neurons. Neurotoxicology. 2002; 23 (3):307-12.
Marotta D, Marini, A, Banaudha, K., Maharaj, S., Jonas, W.B. Nonlinear effects of glutamate and KCl on glutamate toxicity in cultured rat cerebellar neurons. International Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 113:45-56.
Mathie RT. The research evidence base for homeopathy: a fresh assessment of the literature. Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy. 2003; 92:84-91. Mathie RT, Hansen L, Elliott MF et al. Outcomes from homeopathic prescribing in veterinary practice: a prospective, research-targeted, pilot study. Homeopathy 2007; 96 (1):27-34.
Milgrom LR. Are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) redundant for testing the efficacy of homeopathy? A critique of RCT methodology based on entanglement theory. J Altern Complement Med 2005; 11 (5):831-8. Neville-Smith R. Community hospital homeopathy clinic: audit of the first 12 months activity. British Homoeopathic Journal 1999; 88 (1):20-3. Oberbaum M, Singer SR, Vithoulkas G. The colour of the homeopathic improvement: the multidimensional nature of the response to homeopathic therapy. Homeopathy. 2005; 94 (3):196-9.
Oberbaum M, Vithoulkas G, Van Haselen R. Clinical trials of classical homeopathy: reflections on appropriate research designs. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2003; 9 (1):105-11.
Oberbaum M, Yaniv I, Ben-Gal Y et al. A randomized, controlled clinical trial of the homeopathic medication TRAUMEEL S in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis in children undergoing stem cell transplantation. Cancer 2001; 92 (3):684-90.
Rao ML, Roy R, Bell IR et al. The defining role of structure (including epitaxy) in the plausibility of homeopathy. Homeopathy 2007; 96 (3):175-82.
Reilly D, Taylor, M.A., Beattie, N.G.M., Campbell, J.H., McSharry, C., Aitchison, T.C., Carter, R., Stevenson, R.D. Is evidence for homeopathy reproducible? Lancet 1994; 344:1601-6.
Relton C, Weatherley-Jones E. Homeopathy service in a National Health Service community menopause clinic: audit of clinical outcomes. Journal of the British Menopause Society. 2005; 11 (2):72-3.
Rey L. Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride. Physica A: Statistical mechanics and its applications. 2003; 323:67-74. Riley D, Fischer M, Singh B et al. Homeopathy and conventional medicine: an outcomes study comparing effectiveness in a primary care setting. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2001; 7 (2):149-59.
Robinson N, Donaldson J, Watt H. Auditing outcomes and costs of integrated complementary medicine provision--the importance of length of follow up. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2006; 12 (4):249-57.
Roy R, Tiller W, Bell IR et al. The Structure of Liquid Water: Novel Insights from Materials Research and Potential Relevance to Homeopathy. Materials Research Innovation 2005; 9 (4):557-608.
Ruiz-Vega G, Perez-Ordaz L, Proa-Flores P et al. An evaluation of Coffea cruda effect on rats. British Homoeopathic Journal 2000; 89 (3):122-6.
Ruiz-Vega G, Perez-Ordaz, L., Leon-Hueramo, O., Cruz-Vazquez, E., Sanchez-Diaz, N. Comparative effect of Coffea cruda potencies on rats. Homeopathy 2002; 91:80-4.
Ruiz-Vega G, Poitevin B, Perez-Ordaz L. Histamine at high dilution reduces spectral density in delta band in sleeping rats. Homeopathy 2005; 94 (2):86-91.
Ruiz G, Torres JL, Michel O et al. Homeopathic effect on heart rate variability. British Homoeopathic Journal 1999; 88 (3):106-11.
Ruiz G, Torres, J.L. Homeopathic effect on the sleep pattern of rats. British Homoeopathic Journal 1997; 86:201-6.
Sevar R. Audit of outcome in 455 consecutive patients treated with homeopathic medicines. Homeopathy. 2005; 94 (4):215-21.
Sevar R. Audit of outcome in 829 consecutive patients treated with homeopathic medicines. British Homoeopathic Journal 2000; 89 (4):178-87.
Shang A, Huwiler-Muntener K, Nartey L, Juni P, Dorig S, Sterne JA, Pewsner D, Egger M. Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathy. Lancet. 2005; 366 (9487):726-32.
Sukul A, Sarkar P, Sinhababu SP et al. Altered solution structure of alcoholic medium of potentized Nux vomica underlies its antialcoholic effect. British Homoeopathic Journal 2000; 89 (2):73-7.
Sukul A, Sinhabau SP, Sukul NC. Reduction of alcohol induced sleep time in albino mice by potentized Nux vomica prepared with 90% ethanol. British Homoeopathic Journal 1999; 88 (2):58-61.
Sukul NC, Bala, S.K., Bhattacharyya, B. Prolonged cataleptogenic effects of potentized homoeopathic drugs. Psychopharmacology 1986; 89:338-9.
Sukul NC, De A, Sukul A et al. Potentized Mercuric chloride and Mercuric iodide enhance alpha-amylase activity in vitro. Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy. 2002; 91 (4):217-20.
Sukul NC, Ghosh S, Sinhababu SP. Reduction in the number of infective Trichinella spiralis larvae in mice by use of homeopathic drugs. Forschende Komplementarmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde 2005; 12 (4):202-5.
Sukul NC, Ghosh S, Sinhababu SP et al. Strychnos nux-vomica extract and its ultra-high dilution reduce voluntary ethanol intake in rats. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2001; 7 (2):187-93.
Szeto AL, Rollwagen F, Jonas WB. Rapid induction of protective tolerance to potential terrorist agents: a systematic review of low- and ultra-low dose research. [Review] [19 refs]. Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy 2004; 93 (4):173-8.
Thompson E, Barron S, Spence D. A preliminary audit investigating remedy reactions including adverse events in routine homeopathic practice. Homeopathy: Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy. 2004; 93 (4):203-9.
Thompson EA, Oxon, B.A., Montgomery, A., Douglas, D., Reilly, D. A Pilot, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Individualized Homeopathy for Symptoms of Estrogen Withdrawal in Breast-Cancer Survivors. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2005; 11 (1):13-20.
Thompson EA, Reillly D. The homeopathic approach to symptom control in the cancer patient: a prospective observational study. Palliative Medicine. 2002; 16 (3):227-33. Tiller WA. On chemical medicine, thermodynamics, and homeopathy. J Altern Complement Med 2006; 12 (7):685-93.
Torres JL. Homeopathic effect: a network perspective. Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy. 2002a; 91 (2):89-94.
Torres JL. On the physical basis of succussion. Homeopathy 2002b; 91 (4):221-4.
Torres JL, Ruiz MAG. Stochastic resonance and the homeopathic effect. British Homoeopathic Journal 1996; 85:134-40.
van Wassenhoven M, Ives G. An observational study of patients receiving homeopathic treatment. Homeopathy 2004; 93 (1):3-11.
van Wijk R, Bosman S, van Wijk EP. Thermoluminescence in ultra-high dilution research. J Altern Complement Med 2006; 12 (5):437-43.
Van Wijk R, Wiegant FA. The similia principle as a therapeutic strategy: a research program on stimulation of self-defense in disordered mammalian cells. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine. 1997; 3 (2):33-8.
van Wijk R, Wiegant, F.A.C. Cultured Mammalian Cells in Homeopathy Research. The Similia Principle in Self-Recovery. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Universiteit Utrecht; 1994.

Vandenbroucke JP. Homeopathy trials: going nowhere. Lancet 1997; 350:824. Vickers AJ, Smith C. Homoeopathic Oscillococcinum for preventing and treating influenza and influenza-like syndromes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 3:CD001957. Weatherley-Jones E, Nicholl JP, Thomas KJ et al. A randomised, controlled triple-blind trial of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2004a; 56:189-97.
Weatherley-Jones E, Thompson E, Thomas K. The placebo-controlled trial as a test of complementary and alternative medicine: observations from research experience of individualised homeopathic treatment. Homeopathy. 2004b; 93 (4):186-9.
Witt C, Keil T, Selim D, Roll S, Vance W, Wegscheider K, Willich SN. Outcome and costs of homoeopathic and conventional treatment strategies: a comparative cohort study in patients with chronic disorders. Complement Ther Med. 2005a; 13 (2):79-86.
Witt C, Ludtke R, Weisshuhn TE, Willich SN. High homeopathic potencies are different from potentized solvent when investigated with the REDEM technology. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005b; 12 (1):6-13.
Witt CM, Bluth M, Albrecht H, Weisshuhn TE, Baumgartner S, Willich SN. The in vitro evidence for an effect of high homeopathic potencies--a systematic review of the literature. Complement Ther Med. 2007; 15 (2):128-38.
Witt CM, Ludtke R, Baur R et al. Homeopathic medical practice: long-term results of a cohort study with 3981 patients. BMC Public Health 2005; 5:115.

⑩ホメオパシー国際評議会(ICH;International Council for Homeopathy)が日本学術会議がホメオパシーに言及した会長談話への見解

ホメオパシー国際評議会(ICH;International Council for Homeopathy)が日本学術会議がホメオパシーに言及した会長談話への見解を公表しました。
本見解は、日本学術会議、厚生労働大臣、そして報道機関、及び、日本の国民の皆様へのメッセージとして日本ホメオパシー医学協会あてに届いたもので、JPHMAとして和訳版も作成しています。

  • ※ICHは、英、独、米、豪など、世界28ケ国33のホメオパシー職業団体が参加する最大のホメオパシー職業団体で、JPHMAもメンバーとなっています。
和訳

プレスリリース
先日の日本学術会議(SCJ)会長談話に対する見解
2010年9月9日(木) ホメオパシー国際評議会(ICH)

ホメオパシー国際評議会(ICH)は、知識が不十分なことから導き出された日本学術会議(SCJ)会長 金澤氏によるホメオパシーに対する誤解と見解に対し、回答を望みます。 彼の声明は表面的であり、自分が主張した事を立証しようとしていないことは明らかです。 ICHは、日本ホメオパシー医学協会(JPHMA)を含む世界中のホメオパシー専門家の団体を代表する国際評議会です。
1)金澤氏の発表からは、SCJが、ホメオパシーの性質または薬理学におけるホメオパシー医療の原理を真に理解していないことは明らかです。たとえば、レメディーを「ただの水」が含まれたものと言われることは、ホメオパシーのレメディーがどのように作られるかについての研究や理解に全く取り組んでいないことの現れです。 ホメオパシーレメディーは、ホメオパシーが存在して200年以上をかけ発展し、改善された調剤法に従い、とても特別な方法で作られています。ホメオパシー商品は、急速に国際的健康商品市場の重要な一部を形成し、欧州連合の条例によって、あるいは欧州連合、アメリカの食品医薬品局、WHOによって認められています。(1)
2)ホメオパシーレメディーの希釈振盪された性質の効果については、SCJは「この主張には科学的根拠がなく、荒唐無稽としか言いようがありません。」と主張していますが、 ホメオパシー的観点からは、多くの研究において、高希釈薬の効果は立証されている(2-8)だけではなく、他分野における科学的研究も増えており、高希釈の効果が立証されています(9-19) 。このことからも、SCJは主張についての調査を十分にしていないことを示しています。
3)「過去には「ホメオパシーに治療効果がある」と主張する論文が出されたことがあります。しかし、その後の検証によりこれらの論文は誤りで、その効果はプラセボ(偽薬)と同じ、すなわち心理的な効果であり、治療としての有効性がないことが科学的に証明されている。」とランセットの論文を引用し言及しています(20)。
しかし、この論文は、ホメオパシーに対する懐疑的な部分が多く、実際ホメオパシーに対して懐疑的であった著者により偏った方法がとられ 、とても欠陥のある研究である事が示されています(21-22)。
最も最近の研究において、キューバ全人口2千3百万人が関与した研究においては、レプトスピラ症を防ぐのにホメオパシー治療が多大な影響があった事が記録れています(23)。
SCJは、このキューバのホメオパシー治療の件に関して、個別のケーステイクがされずに全人口へ定期的に与えられたホメオパシーレメディーが何らかの集団プラセボ効果があったと主張するつもりなのでしょうか。
4)SCJはまた、今年初めの英国下院科学技術委員会の報告を引用されています(24)。
この報告は、英国国会の懐疑的国会議員の見切り発車により始められた軽率な調査の結果行われたものです。その懐疑派国会議員が望む結果を引き出すようにとても偏った方法で実践し、文書化された、欠陥のある報告でした。最終報告では、わずか3名の国会議員による署名しかなく、その内の2名は、その調査過程に参加していませんでした。英国国会全体で討論されることもなく、承認を得ることもなかったのです。 英国政府は、公正に、この報告に応答しながらも、NHSからホメオパシーを除外するという、その提言は決議されなかったのです(25) 。
世界中の何千にも及ぶ医師達は、現代医学では満足に応えられない多くの患者達をホメオパシーにより助ける事ができることから、自分達の医療にホメオパシーを統合し始めています。また増加する患者のニーズに応え、専門の医療として、ホメオパシーの教育を受けたホメオパスという新しい職業が、ここ数十年間で世界的に確立されています。
この談話に表明されているように、調査が不十分な情報をもとにホメオパシーを排除することをしようとするより、ホメオパシー治療で恩恵を受けた患者やそれを使っているホメオパシー療法士と触れ合うことで、なぜこのようにホメオパシー需要が高まっているのか、どのようにそれが作用するのかを理解しようと取り組むことを考慮するべきではないでしょうか。 患者の健康管理のために、ホメオパシーは現代医学と併用することが可能であるという選択肢があっても良いのではないでしょうか。
For further information on the content of this document please contact:
この文書の内容に対する情報に関しては、以下にご連絡願います

International Council for Homeopathy

Japanese Homeopathic Medical Association

References

  1. World Health Organization (WHO). Safety issues in the preparation of homeopathic medicines, 2009. ISBN 978 92 4 159884 2
  2. Jonas, W. B., Kaptchuk, T. J., & Linde, K. 2003b, "A critical overview of homeopathy", Ann.Intern.Med., vol. 138, no. 5, pp. 393-399.
  3. Cucherat, M., Haugh, M. C., Gooch, M., & Boissel, J. P. 2000, "Evidence of clinical efficacy of homeopathy. A meta-analysis of clinical trials. HMRAG. Homeopathic Medicines Research Advisory Group", Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol., vol.. 56, no. 1, pp. 27-33.
  4. Linde K, Clausius N, Ramirez G, et al. Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Lancet 1997;350:834-43.
  5. Report to the European Commission directorate general XII: science, research and development. Vol 1 (short version). Brussels: European Commission, 1996:16-7.
  6. Kleijnen J, Knipschild P, Ter Riet G. Clinical trials of homoeopathy. British Medical Journal. 1991b;302:316-23.
  7. Linde K. Jonas WB, Melchart D, Worku F, Wagner H, Eital F. Critical Review and Meta-Analysis of Serial Agitated Dilutions in Experimental Toxicology. Human and Experimental Toxicology. 1994;13:481-492.
  8. Reilly D, Taylor MA, Beattie NGM, Campbell JH, McSharry C, Aitchison TC, Carter R, Stevenson RD. Is evidence for homoeopathy reproducible? Lancet. 1994;344:1601-1606.
  9. Chaplin M. Water structure and science. http://www1.lsbu.ac.uk/water/index2.html (last accessed 22.08.2009)
  10. Brooks M. Homeopathy. It's patently absurd, so why won't it go away? In: 13 things that don't make sense. The most intriguing scientific mysteries of our times. Profile books. 2009.
  11. Rey L. Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium, chloride and sodium chloride. Physica A, 2003, 323, 67-74
  12. Roy R, Tiller WA, Bell I, Hoover MR: The structure of liquid water; novel insights from materials research; Potential relevance to homeopathy. Mat Res Innovat 2005;9:577-608.
  13. Rao ML, Roy R, Bell IR, Hoover R: The defining role of structure (including epitaxy) in the plausibility of homeopathy. Homeopathy 2007;96:175-182.
  14. Samal S, Geckler KE: Unexpected solute aggregation in water on dilution. Chem Commun 2001;21: 2224-2225.
  15. van Wijk R, Bosman S, van Wijk EP: Thermoluminescence in ultra-high dilution research. J Altern Complement Med 2006;12:437-443.
  16. Elia V, Elia L, Cacace P, Napoli E, Niccoli M, Savarese F: Extremely diluted solutions as multivariable systems: a study of calorimetric and conductimetric behaviour as functions of the parameter time. J Therm Anal Calorim 2006;84:317-323.
  17. Arani R, Bono I, Del Guidice E, Preparata G: QED coherence and the thermodynamics of water. Int J Mod Phys B 1995;9:1813-1841.
  18. Demangeat JL. NMR water proton relaxation in unheated and heated ultrahigh aqueous dilutions of histamine: Evidence for an air-dependent supramolecular organization of water. Mol. Liquids, 144 (2009), 32-39.
  19. Montagnier L, Aissa J, Ferris S, Montagnier JL, Lavallee C. Electromagnetic signals are produced by aqueous nanostructures derived from bacterial DNA sequences. Interndiscip Sci Comput Life Sci, 2009; 1: 81-90.
  20. Shang A, Huwiler-Muntener K, Nartey L, Juni P, Dorig S, Sterne JAC, Pewsner D, Egger M. Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo controlled trials of homeopathy and allopathy. Lancet 2005; 366: 726-32.
  21. Ludtke R, Rutten ALB. The conclusions on the effectiveness of homeopathy highly depend on the set of analyzed trials. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2008, 61(12), 1197-204.
  22. Rutten ALB, Stolper CF. The 2005 meta-analysis of homeopathy: the importance of post-publication data. Homeopathy, 2008, 97, 169-177.
  23. Bracho G, Varela E, Fernandez R, Ordaz B, Marzoa N, Menendez J, Garcia L, Gilling E, Leyva R, Rufin R, de la Torre R, Solis RL, Batista N, Borrero R, Campa C. Large-scale application of highly-diluted bacteria for Leptospirosis epidemic control. Homeopathy, 2010; 99: 156-166.
  24. House of Commons Science and Technology Committee. Evidence Check 2: Homeopathy. Fourth Report of Session 2009 - 10, 22 Feb 2010.
  25. Government Response to the Science and Technology Committee report 'Evidence Check 2: Homeopathy'. Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State of Health by Command of Her Majesty, July 2010.

⑪新生児の逆流

ディディエ・グランドジョージ氏(フランス)

⑫参考文献集

ライオネル・ミルグロム

⑬肯定的なホメオパシーリサーチ

ECCH文書

An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys The European Network of Homeopathy Researchers August 2009 This document has been produced by the European Network for Homeopathy Researchers (ENHR). The ENHR was established in 2004 with support from the European Council for Classical Homeopathy (ECCH). ECCH currently assists the ENHR in its secretarial work. The ENHR consists of 66 individuals from 15 different countries involved in or with a special interest in homeopathy research. The ENHR is open to membership for any individual involved or interested in homeopathy research. Purpose of the European Network of Homeopathy Researchers (ENHR):

  • The primary aim of the ENHR is to contribute to improving homeopathy research for the benefit of patients.
  • A long-term objective of the ENHR is to contribute to carrying out international EU funded research projects within the area of homeopathy research.
  • The ENHR consists of researchers, research advisors and representatives of the homeopathy profession as well as consumer/patient groups with an interest in the area of homeopathy research.
  • Members of the ENHR inform each other about homeopathy research that is in the planning stages or being carried out, as well as published research articles.

Introduction
This document contains a sample of brief summaries of positive homeopathy research, together with the full references. Additional information may be found in the document entitled 'Facts about homeopathy and other CAM therapies' (an ECCH document), and on the enclosed list of website addresses. Readers are recommended to read the full research articles in order to acquire a more profound knowledge base of research that has been undertaken.
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 1 of 21 Content litst Page
Use of homeopathy and other CAM therapies 3
User surveys showing patient satisfaction with homeopathic treatment 5
Safety of homeopathic treatment 6
Reviews and meta-analyses 7
Key trials and surveys 10
Diarrhoea in children 10
Respiratory tract complaints 10
Musculo-skeletal problems 11
Hay fever, asthma and perennial rhinitis 12
Pre menstrual syndrome (PMS) 13
Menopausal complaints 13
Homeopathy after oestrogen withdrawal 13
Hot flashes after breast cancer therapy 14
Infertility 14
Sperm quality 15
Pregnancy-related problems 15
ADHD 16
ME/CFS 16
Surgery 16
Dengue haemorrhagic fever 16
Cost benefit 17
Basic research - The effect of high dilutions 18
Treatment of animals 19
Research website addresses 20
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 2 of 21 USE OF HOMEOPATHY AND OTHER CAM THERAPIES
Homeopathy is being practised in 41 out of 42 European countries.
The Legal Situation for the Practice of Homeopathy in Europe, revised report, May 2006, European Council for Classical Homeopathy. Legal Status of Traditional Medicine and Complementary/ Alternative Medicine: A Worldwide Review, World Health Organization, 2001. Homeopathy is the most frequently used CAM therapy in 5 out of 14 surveyed countries in Europe and among the three most frequently used in 11 out of 14 surveyed countries. Norges offentlige utredninger, NOU 1998:21 Alternativ medisin. (Official report published by the Norwegian Department of Health. Available at: http://odin.dep.no/hd/norsk/publ/utredninger/NOU/030005-020019/
index-ved005-b-n-a.html
)

Ot.prp. nr. 27 (2002-2003). Om lov om alternativ behandling av sykdom mv. Public interest in, and acceptance of alternative treatment increases in most European countries. Percentage of the population using alternative treatment varies from 18 to 71 % depending on country. Ot.prp. nr. 27 (2002-2003). Om lov om alternativ behandling av sykdom mv. Det kongelige helsedepartement. http://odin.dep.no/repub/02-03/otprp/27/ Homeopathy is officially recognised and included in the national health system in a number of countries within and outside of Europe. Legal Status of Traditional Medicine and Complementary/Alternative Medicine: A Worldwide Review, World Health Organization, 2001. Three Europeans out of four know about homeopathy and of these 29 % use it for their health care. Homeopathic medicinal products. Commission report to the European Parliament and the Council on the application of Directives 92/73 and 92/74. A study of 1097 patients visiting 80 Norwegian homeopaths showed that one in four patients were children between 0 and 9 years of age, compared to one in ten in 1985 and in general practice. The most commonly presented complaints were respiratory, skin and psychological complaints. Steinsbekk A, Fonnebo V. Users of homeopaths in Norway in 1998, compared to previous users and GP patients. Homeopathy (2003) 92, 3-10. A survey of 1400 patients treated in a homeopathic clinic showed that 36 % were under the age of 16 in 2004, compared to 26 % in 1995. Respiratory complaints, complaints of ears and skin accounted for 70 % of patients in the age group from 0 to 10 years. More than half of the patients had university or other higher education. Viksveen P, Steinsbekk A. Changes in patients visiting a homeopathic clinic in Norway from 1994 to 2004. Homeopathy (2005) 94, 222-228. A survey of more than 70 000 citizens showed that approximately 9 million people in Italy (15.6 % of the population) have used at least one unconventional therapy in the period from 1997 to 1999. Homeopathy was the most frequently used (8.2 % of the population). Homeopathy was also quite commonly used by children (7.7 %). The use of CAM therapies has almost doubled since 1991. Menniti-Ippolito, F., Forcella, E., Bologna, E., Gargiulo, L., Traversa, G., & Raschetti, R. Use of unconventional medicine in children in Italy. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2002 Apr;58(1):61-4. Homeopathy is one of several alternative therapies that are used in treating infertile people. CAM therapists take a more holistic view of infertility treatment than allopathic health professionals. Veal L. Complementary therapy and infertility: an Icelandic perspective. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 1998 Feb;4(1):3-6. An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 3 of 21

USE OF HOMEOPATHY AND OTHER CAM THERAPIES
Research has shown that homeopathy is one of a number of alternative therapies that women experience as useful in treating endometriosis.
Wienhard J, Tinneberg HR. Alternative treatment possibilities of complaints due to endometriosis. Zentralbl Gynakol. 2003 Jul-Aug;125(7-8):286-9.
Infertility can also be caused by difficulties in men, including low sperm numbers and poor quality. Men with infertility problems also consult with CAM practitioners such as homeopaths.
Oldereid NB, Rui H, Purvis K. Male partners in infertile couples. Personal attitudes and contact with the Norwegian health service. Scand J Soc Med. 1990 Sep;18(3):207-11.
CAM therapies such as homeopathy are gaining acceptance in countries across the world, both among health providers and consumers. A majority of patients consulting with CAM practitioners are women, often seeking help for reproductive health problems, menstrual disorders, menopause, problems during pregnancy and childbirth.
Beal MW. Women's use of complementary and alternative therapies in reproductive health care. J Nurse Midwifery. 1998 May-Jun;43(3):224-34.
A number or studies have shown that women make up between 64 and 80 % of the clientele visiting homeopaths.
Viksveen P, Steinsbekk A. Changes in patients visiting a homeopathic clinic in Norway 1994-2004. Homeopathy (2005) 94, 222-228.
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 4 of 21

USER SURVEYS SHOWING PATIENT SATISFACTION WITH HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT
In an observational study of 6544 consecutive patients during a 6-year period, and over 23,000 consultations, results showed that 70.7 % reported positive health changes, with 50.7 % recording their improvement as better (+2) or much better (+3). Of the 1270 children that were treated 80.5 % had some improvement, and 65.8 % were better (+2) or much better (+3).
Spence DS, Thompson EA, Barron SJ. Homeopathic Treatment for Chronic Disease: A 6-Year, University-Hospital Outpatient Observational Study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Volume 11, Number 5, 2005, pp. 793-798.
In a prospective, multi-centre cohort study with 103 primary care practices treating 3981 patients, disease severity decreased significantly (p→0.001) over a 2 year period. Major improvements were observed for quality of life for adults and young children. 28 % (1130) of the patients were children and 97 % of all diagnoses where chronic with an average duration of 8.8 years. The most frequent diagnoses were allergic rhinitis in men, headache in women, and atopic dermatitis in children.
Witt CM, Luedtke R, Baur R, Willich SN. Homeopathic Medical Practice: Long-term results of a Cohort Study with 3981 Patients. BMC Public Health 2005, 5:115.
Seven out of ten patients visiting Norwegian homeopaths reported a meaningful improvement in their main complaint 6 months after the initial consultation.
Steinsbekk, A. Patients' assessments of the effectiveness of homeopathic care in Norway: A prospective observational multi-centre outcome study. Homeopathy, Volume 94, Issue 1, January 2005, Pages 10-16.
One year after their first visit to a homeopathic clinic, 609 patients were asked to rate their general health compared with a year ago. 73.5 % reported a marked or moderate improvement in their health status.
F. Attena et al. Homeopathy in Primary Care: self reported change in health status. Complementary therapies in Medicine Vol 8 No 1. March 2000.
A study of 829 patients treated with homeopathic medicines, where conventional treatment had been unsatisfactory or contraindicated. 61 % had a substantial improvement with homeopathy.
Sevar, R. Audit of outcome in 829 consecutive patients treated with homeopathic medicine. British Homeopathic Journal Vol 89 No.4. Oct 2000.
A survey of more than 900 patients treated homeopathically showed substantial improvement in quality of life over the first 6 months after treatment and this effect remained more or less stable over the following years.
Guthlin C, Lange O and Walach H. Measuring the effects of acupuncture and homoeopathy in general practice: An uncontrolled prospective documentation approach. BMC Public Health 2004, 4:6.
British prospective survey of homeopathic treatment of 223 patients, 1996. 90% improvement or more: 32%. 60% improvement or more: 65% 50% improvement or more: 72%. Report on NHS practice-based homoeopathy project. Analysis of effectiveness and cost of homoeopathic treatment within a GP practice at St. Margaret's Surgery, Bradford on Avon, Wilts. Elizabeth A Christie, Andrew T Ward ISBN 1 901262 006 British prospective survey of homeopathic treatment of 160 patients, 1994.
Very positive effect: 73%. Some effect: 27%. No effect: 0%.
Report on a Homoeopathy Project in an NHS Practice. Covering 18 month period from February 1993 to August 1994. Elizabeth A Christie, Andrew T Ward,. Reprinted February 1997.
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 5 of 21

USER SURVEYS SHOWING PATIENT SATISFACTION WITH HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT
British prospective survey of homeopathic treatment of 37 patients suffering from psychological complaints, 1998. Very satisfied: 81%. Satisfied: 16%. Not satisfied at all: 3%.
Homoeopathy within the NHS. Evaluation of homoeopathic treatment of common mental health problems. 1995 - 1997. Alistair Dempster,. Rydings Hall Surgery, Brighouse, West Yorkshire. ISBN No 1901262014.
Retrospective survey of homeopathic treatment, Danmarks Farmaceutiske Hojskole, 1995.
73% of patients stated they improved after homeopathic treatment.
Andersen HE, Eldov P. Klassisk homoopati - og dens brugere. Institut for Samfundsfarmaci, Danmarks Farmaceutiske Hojskole. 1995. Andersen, Helle Egebjerg. En undersogelse af Klassisk Homopati. Teorier, praksis og brugererfaringer. 1999. ISBN 87-987279-0-7
The effect of homeopathy, acupuncture and osteopathy. Result: 89% of patients stated they experienced positive effect from the treatment. Particularly clear effect on reduction of pain, increased vitality, ability to function socially and with regards to limitations at work and in daily activities influenced by physical problems. Homeopathy was particularly effective for patients suffering from arthritis, hay fever, asthma and skin complaints.
Richardson J. Quasi-randomised control trial to assess the outcome of acupuncture, osteopathy and homoeopathy using the short form 36 item health survey. Health Services Research and Evaluation Unit, The Lewisham Hospital NHS Trust. December 1996.
A telephone survey of more than 850 women aged 45 to 65 years showed that 76 % used alternative therapies (9). This included 22 % who used these therapies to treat their menopause symptoms. As many as 89 % found these therapies to be somewhat or very helpful.
Newton KM, Buist DS, Keenan NL, Anderson LA, LaCroix AZ. Use of alternative therapies for menopause symptoms: results of a population-based survey. Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Jul;100(1):18-25.

SAFETY OF HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT
It is the clinical experience of thousands of homeopaths over the last two centuries that homeopathy is comparatively safe even for women in pregnancy and in labour. Research into the safety of homeopathy has shown that about one in five experience an aggravation of their symptoms for a short while after treatment, but these effects are mild and transient.
Adler M. Efficacy, safety of a fixed-combination homeopathic therapy for sinusitis. Adv Ther 1999; 16: 103-111.
Bornhoft et al. Effectiveness, Safety and Cost-Effectiveness of Homeopathy in General Practice - Summarized Health Technology Assessment. Forsch Komplementarmed 2006;13(suppl 2):19-29.
Dantas, F. & Rampes, H. 2000. Do Homeopathic Medicines Provoke Adverse Effects? A Systematic Review. British Homeopathic Journal. 2000; 89: 70-74.
European Central Council of Homeopaths (ECCH). The safety of homeopathy. January 2009. Available at www.homeopathy-ecch.eu Thompson 2004. A preliminary audit investigating remedy reactions including adverse events in routine homeopathic practice. Homeopathy 93;203-209 An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 6 of 21
REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES

HMRG report with overview of clinical research in homeopathy, identified 184 controlled clinical trials. They selected the highest quality randomized control trials, which included a total of 2617 patients for a meta-analysis. This meta-analysis resulted in a p-value of 0.000036 (which means that results are highly significant) indicating that homeopathy is more effective than placebo. The researchers concluded that the "hypothesis that homeopathy has no effect can be rejected with certainty". Homeopathic Medicine Research Group.
Report to the European Commission directorate general XII: science, research and development. Vol 1 (short version). Brussels: European Commission, 1996:16-7. Of the 105 trials with interpretable results, 81 trials indicated positive results. Most studies showed results in favour of homeopathy even among those randomized controlled trials that received high-quality ratings for randomization, blinding, sample size, and other methodological criteria. They came to the following conclusion: "The amount of positive evidence even among the best studies came as a surprise to us. Based on this evidence we would readily accept that homeopathy can be efficacious, if only the mechanism of action were more plausible. The evidence presented in this review would probably be sufficient for establishing homeopathy as a regular treatment for certain indications".
Kleijnen J, Knipschild P, Ter Riet G. Clinical trials of homoeopathy. British Medical Journal. 1991b;302:316-23.
A meta-analysis of three trials on homeopathic immunotherapy. Result: significant effect in favour of homeopathic treatment.
Reilly D, Taylor MA, Beattie NGM, Campbell JH, McSharry C, Aitchison TC, Carter R, Stevenson RD. Is evidence for homoeopathy reproducible? Lancet. 1994;344:1601-1606.
A review of placebo-controlled clinical trials using homeopathic medicines to treat people with AIDS or who are HIV-positive found 5 controlled clinical trials. Results showed statistically significant results in subjects with stage III AIDS, and specific physical, immunologic, neurologic, metabolic, and quality-of-life benefits, including improvements in lymphocyte counts and functions and reductions in HIV viral loads in patients receiving homeopathic treatment. Ullman D. Controlled Clinical Trials Evaluating the Homeopathic Treatment of People with Human Immunodeficiency Virus or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Volume 9, Number 1, 2003, pp. 133-141.
Meta-analysis of 105 articles on laboratory research. Result: positive effect 50% more frequently than negative effect among trials of highest methodological quality. (1994)
Linde K. Jonas WB, Melchart D, Worku F, Wagner H, Eital F. Critical Review and Meta-Analysis of Serial Agitated Dilutions in Experimental Toxicology. Human and Experimental Toxicology. 1994;13:481-492.
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 8 of 21

KEY TRIALS AND SURVEYS
Diarrhoea in children
Treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea in Nicaragua
This trial involved 81 children aged from 6 months to 5 years in a randomised, double-blind trial of intravenous fluids plus placebo versus intravenous fluids plus homeopathic remedy individualised to the patient. The treatment group had a statistically significant decrease in duration of diarrhoea.
Jacobs J. Treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea with homeopathic medicine: a randomized clinical trial in Nicaragua. Pediatrics 1994; 93: 719-725.
Treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea, repeated in Nepal
In a replication of a trial carried out in Nicaragua in 1994, 116 Nepalese children aged 6 months to 5 years suffering from diarrhoea were given an individualised homoeopathic medicine or placebo. Treatment by homoeopathy showed a significant improvement in the condition in comparison to placebo.
Jacobs J., Jimenez M., Malthouse S., Chapman E., Crothers D., Masuk M., Jonas W.B., Acute Childhood Diarrhoea- A Replication., Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 6, 2000, 131-139.
A meta-analysis of childhood diarrhoea trials This meta-analysis of 242 children showed a highly significant result in the duration of childhood diarrhoea (P=0.008). It should be noted that the World Health Organisation consider childhood diarrhoea to be the number one public health problem today because of the millions of children who die every year from dehydration from diarrhoea. J. Jacobs, WB Jonas, M Jimenez-Perez, D Crothers, Homeopathy for Childhood Diarrhea: Combined Results and Meta-analysis from Three Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trials http://homeopathic.com/articles/research/diarrhea_t.php
Respiratory tract complaints
Homeopathy versus conventional treatment in respiratory tract complaints
In an outcome study, 30 practitioners in four countries enrolled 500 consecutive patients with at least one of three complaints: upper respiratory tract complaints including allergies; lower respiratory tract complaints including allergies; or ear complaints. Of 456 patients, 281 received homeopathy and 175 conventional treatment. The primary outcome criterion was response to treatment, defined as cured or major improvement after 14 days of treatment. Results showed a response rate of 82.6% in the homeopathy group compared to 67.3% in the group receiving conventional medicine. The authors concluded that homeopathy appeared to be at least as effective as conventional treatment of patients with the three conditions studied.
Riley D, Fischer M, Singh B, Haidvogl M, Heger M. Homeopathy and conventional medicine: an outcomes study comparing effectiveness in a primary care setting. J Altern Complement Med 2001; 7: 149-159.
Homeopathy versus conventional treatment in recurrent acute rhinopharyngitis in children
Prospective pragmatic study, comparison of homeopathy versus antibiotics in the treatment of recurrent acute rhinopharyngitis in children (18 months to 4 years) over a 6 month period. Results showed that homeopathy was significantly better than antibiotics in terms of episodes of rhinopharyngitis (2.71 vs 3.97, p→0.001), number of complications (1.25 vs 1.95, p→0.001) and quality of life (global score: 21.38 vs 30.43, p→0.001). Homeopathic treatment also contributed to lower medical costs (88 Euros vs 99 Euros, p→0.05) and significantly less sick-leave (9.5% of parents vs 31.6% of parents, p→0.001).
Trichard M, Chaufferin G, Nicoloyannis N. Pharmacoeconomic comparison between homeopathic and antibiotic treatment strategies in recurrent acute rhinopharyngitis in children. Homeopathy. 2005 Jan;94(1):3-9
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 9 of 21

KEY TRIALS AND SURVEYS
Respiratory tract complaints
Homeopathy versus conventional treatment in otitis media
Prospective observational study, comparison of homeopathy versus conventional treatment in acute otitis media. Conclusion: homeopathy should be first line treatment in acute otitis media. Results showed median duration of pain of 2 days in the homeopathy-group and 3 days in the conventional medicine group. 70.7 % of the children receiving homeopathic treatment did not have another ear infection the next year and 29.3 % had a maximum of three ear infections within one year. 56.5 % in the conventional medicine group did not have another ear infection the next year and 43.5 % had a maximum of six ear infections the next year. Results showed that in the group receiving homeopathic treatment only 5 out of 103 children needed antibiotics.
Friese K-H, Kruse S, Ludtke R, Moeller H "Homeopathic treatment of otitis media in children: comparisons with conventional therapy". Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1997; 35: 296-301.
Acute otitis media in children
A study involving children suffering from acute otitis media suggests that a positive treatment effect from homeopathy when compared with placebo in acute otitis media cannot be excluded. There were fewer treatment failures in the group receiving homeopathy after 5 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks, with differences of 11.4, 18.4, and 19.9%, respectively, but these differences were not statistically significant. Diary scores showed a significant decrease in symptoms at 24 and 64 h after treatment in favour of homeopathy (P→0.05).
Jacobs J, Springer DA, Crothers D. Homeopathic treatment of acute otitis media in children: a preliminary randomized placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001; 20: 177-183.
Acute otitis media in children
In a trial of 230 children who were given homeopathic treatment to treat acute otitis media, pain relief was achieved in 39% of the patients after 6 h and another 33% after 12 h. The resolution rates were 2.4 times faster than in placebo controls. No complications were observed and compared to conventional treatment the homeopathic approach was 14% cheaper.
Frei H, Thurneysen A. Homeopathy in acute otitis media in children: treatment effect or spontaneous resolution? Br Homeopath J 2001; 90: 180-182.
Glue ear in children
In a pilot study in children suffering from glue ear treated with homeopathy 75% had normal tympanogram, compared to 31% in the group treated with conventional medicine. A higher proportion of children receiving homeopathic treatment had a hearing loss less than 20 dB at follow-up, though the difference was not statistically significant. The authors concluded that further research comparing homeopathy to standard care is warranted; 270 patients would be needed for a definitive trial. Harrison H, Fixsen A, Vickers A. A randomized comparison of homoeopathic, standard care for the treatment of glue ear in children. Compl Therap Med 1999; 7: 132-135.
Acute sinusitis
In an uncontrolled clinical trial of 119 patients suffering from clinical signs of acute sinusitis were treated using homeopathic medicines. Typical sinusitis symptoms, such as headache, pressure pain at nerve exit points, and irritating cough, were reduced after a mean of 4.1 days of treatment. Ninety-nine received only a homeopathic test medication, 20 patients were able to discontinue concomitant medication at the first visit, and only one patient needed antibiotics. Average duration of treatment was 2 weeks. At the end of treatment 81.5 % described themselves as symptom free or significantly improved. No adverse medication effects were reported. Adler M. Efficacy, safety of a fixed-combination homeopathic therapy for sinusitis. Adv Ther 1999; 16: 103-111.
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 10 of 21

KEY TRIALS AND SURVEYS
Musculo-skeletal problems
Rheumatoid arthritis
Forty-six patients with rheumatoid arthritis received an individualised remedy or placebo in a 3-month randomised trial. Both groups were allowed to continue standard anti-inflammatory drugs. After 3 months, the double-blind code was broken and remedies were given to members of the placebo group in a single crossover study. Articular index, limbering up time, grip strength and pain all showed statistically significant differences.
Gibson RG, Gibson SLM, MacNeill AD, Buchanan WW Homeopathic therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: evaluation by double-blind clinical therapeutic trial. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1980; 9: 453-459.
Osteoarthritis
In this trial, 65 sufferers of Osteoarthritis (OA) were split into 2 groups, and through a double blinding process were given either a homoeopathic medicine or Acetaminophen, a commonly prescribed drug for pain relief in OA. Researchers found that homoeopathy provided a level of pain relief that was superior to Acetaminophen, and produced no adverse reactions.
Shealy C.N., Thomlinson P.R., Cox R.H., and Bormeyer V. Osteoarthritis Pain: A Comparison of Homoeopathy and Acetaminophen. American Journal of Pain Management, 8, 3, July 1998, 89-91.
Fibromyalgia
A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of individualised homeopathic treatment (LM potency) versus placebo in 53 patients, concluded that individualised homeopathy is significantly better than placebo in lessening tender point pain, improving the quality of life and overall health, and less depression of persons with fibromyalgia. A broad selection of homeopathic medicines in LM-potencies were prescribed and the trial was carried out over a 4 month period. Bell IR, Lewis II DA, Brooks AJ, Schwartz GE, Lewis SE, Walsh BT, Baldwin CM. Improved clinical status in fibromyalgia patients treated with individualized homeopathic remedies versus placebo. Rheumatology Advance Access, January 20, 2004.
http://rheumatology.oupjournals.org/cgi/reprint/keh111 Fibrositis
In a randomised placebo-controlled trial of patients with fibrositis, only those patients in whom Rhus toxicodendron was 'unequivocally indicated' were admitted to the study. After 1 month's treatment, there were highly significant improvements in objective and subjective parameters.
Fisher P. An experimental double-blind clinical trial in homoeopathy. British Homoeopathic Journal 1986; 75: 142-147.
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 11 of 21

KEY TRIALS AND SURVEYS
Hay fever, asthma and perennial rhinitis
A study of 200 patients suffering from hypersensitivity illnesses, including asthma, eczema, urticaria, hay fever and other allergies, showed that homeopathy was at least as effective as conventional treatment. The study, which was retrospective and comparative, looked at the experienced effect in everyday clinical practice of general practitioners and classical homeopaths. Where most patients who were treated by medical doctors experienced an aggravation of their symptoms when stopping conventional drugs, only 1/3 of patients in the homeopathy group experienced such an aggravation (P = 0.002). Only one patient on conventional treatment experienced improvement of symptoms after stopping medication, compared to improvement in 2/3 of homeopathy patients. Patients in the homeopathy group reported a larger improvement in their general state of health, with 57% improving, compared to 24% in the conventional group (difference P = 0.004). Homeopathy patients also experienced more positive change in their psychological state (P→0.0001). For quality of life 53% in the homeopathy group improved, compared to 15 % in the conventional group. Launso L, Kimby CK, Henningsen I, Fonnebo V. An exploratory retrospective study of people suffering from hypersensitivity illness who attend medical or classical homeopathic treatment. Homeopathy (2006) 95, 73-80.
A survey of 147 patients suffering from respiratory allergies showed that 87.6% improved. Out of 42 patients suffering from pulmonary allergies, only two aggravated and three were unchanged.
Colin P. Homeopathy and respiratory allergies: a series of 147 cases. Homeopathy (2006) 95, 68-72
Reilly and colleagues have conducted a series of trials in patients with hay fever, asthma and perennial rhinitis. Patients were given skin tests and remedies were chosen on the basis of reactivity. This design allows individualisation whilst avoiding the issues of case-taking and the effect that this has on the process. The results demonstrate a significant difference between the placebo and homeopathic groups which is reproducible. (NB! Strictly speaking these are trials of isopathy.) Anon. Reilly's challenge (editorial). Lancet 1994; 344: 1585.
Reilly DT, Taylor MA. Potent placebo or potency? A proposed study model with initial findings using homoeopathically prepared pollens in hay fever as a model. British Homoeopathic Journal 1985; 74: 65-75.
Reilly DT, Taylor MA, Campbell J, Beattie N, McSharry C, Aitchison T, Carter R, Stevenson R. Is evidence for homoeopathy reproducible? Lancet 1994; 334: 1601-1606. Reilly DT, Taylor MA, McSharry C, Aitchison T. Is homoeopathy a placebo response? Controlled trial of homoeopathic potency, with pollen in hay fever as a model. Lancet 1986; ii: 881-886.
Taylor MA, Reilly D, Llewellyn-Jones RH, McSharry C, Aitchison T, Lancaster T, Vickers A. Randomised controlled trial of homeopathy versus placebo in perennial allergic rhinitis with overview of four trial series British Medical Journal 2000; 321: 471-476.
Double-blind clinical trial comparing homeopathic preparations from common allergens (tree, grass, weed) with placebo. 40 patients diagnosed with moderate to severe seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms were treated over a 4 week period. Results showed significant positive changes in the homeopathy group compared with the placebo group (p→0.05). No adverse effects were reported.
Kim LS, Riedlinger JE, Baldwin CM, Hilli L, Khalsa SV, Messer SA, Waters RF. Treatment of Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis Using Homeopathic Preparation of Common Allergens in the Southwest Region of the US: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial. Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Apr;39(4):617-24. Epub 2005 Mar 1. Related Articles, Links An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 12 of 21

KEY TRIALS AND SURVEYS
Pre menstrual syndrome (PMS)
In a randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial (1992-94) 19 women suffering from PMS were treated individually with homeopathy. 90 % of the patients who had received homeopathic treatment experienced more than 30 % improvement (P=0.048). Only 37.5 % of patients who received placebo experienced a similar improvement. Sick-days before menses were reduced from 0.75 to 0 in the homeopathy-group, and was unchanged in the control group. Use of conventional drugs was also reduced in the homeopathy-group.
Yakir M, Kreitler S, Brzezinski A, Vithoulkas G, Oberbaum M, Bentwich Z. Effects of homeopathic treatment in women with premenstrual syndrome: a pilot study. Br Homeopath J. 2001 Jul ;90(3): 148-53.
A randomised controlled trial of homeopathic treatment for PMS confirms that homeopathy is helpful in PMS.
Jones A. Homeopathic treatment for premenstrual symptoms. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2003 Jan;29(1):6-7.
Menopausal complaints
In a prospective study 81.4% of 102 patients reported improvement of menopause symptoms after homeopathic treatment. Main symptoms noted were hot flushes and sweats, tiredness, anxiety, sleeping difficulties, mood swings and headaches. Women referred to homeopathy were those who either could not take hormone replacement treatment (HRT), for whom HRT was unsuccessful, who did not want or who had to come off HRT. Mean length of homeopathic treatment was 5 months.
Relton C, Weatherley-Jones E. Homeopathy Service in a National Health Service community menopause clinic: audit of clinical outcomes. Journal of the British Menopause Society, Vol. 11, No. 2, June 2005.
An outcome study and service evaluation of homeopathy service found that 88% of patients reported clinically significant improvement in their primary symptom. Greatest clinical benefit was reported by women for headaches, tiredness, vasomotor symptoms, locomotor symptoms and sleeping difficulties.
Thomas KJ, Luff D, Strong P. Complementary Medicine Service in a Community Clinic for Patients with Symptoms Associated with the Menopause: Outcome and Sercive Evaluation. ScHARR, University of Sheffield, 2001.
An observational study of homeopathic treatment of menopausal symptoms found benefit in menopausal symptoms, mood and quality of life.
Clover A, Ratsey D. Homeopathic treatment of hot flushes: a pilot study. Homeopathy 2002;91:75-9.
Homeopathy after oestrogen withdrawal
40 out of 45 women with breast cancer withdrawing from oestrogen and then treated homeopathically, experienced significant improvement in their primary symptoms, anxiety and depression, as well as improvement in quality of life. Primary symptoms changed from 7.8 to 5.4, and from 7.2 to 4.1 (p→0.001). The homeopathic approach appears to be clinically useful in the management of oestrogen withdrawal symptoms in women with breast cancer.
Thompson EA, Reilly D. The homeopathic approach to the treatment of symptoms of oestrogen withdrawal in breast cancer patients. A prospective observational study. Homeopathy. 2003 Jul;92(3):131-4.
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 13 of 21
Hot flashes after breast cancer therapy Homeopathy may serve as an alternative in treatment for hot flashes in women suffering from early menopause as a result of conventional treatment of breast cancer. Graf MC, Geller PA. Treating hot flashes in breast cancer survivors: a review of alternative treatments to hormone replacement therapy. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2003 Nov-Dec;7(6):637-40.
Boekhout AH, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH. Symptoms and treatment in cancer therapy-induced early menopause. Oncologist. 2006 Jun;11(6):641-54.

Carpenter JS, Neal JG. Other complementary and alternative medicine modalities: acupuncture, magnets, reflexology, and homeopathy. Am J Med. 2005 Dec 19;118 Suppl 12B:109-17.
Clover A, Ratsey D. Homeopathic treatment of hot flushes: a pilot study. Homeopathy, 2002 Apr;91(2):75-9.
Jacobs J, Herman P, Heron K, Olsen S, Vaughters L. Homeopathy for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Feb;11(1):21-7.
An overview of 12 studies of menopause-related symptoms showed that CAM therapies such as homeopathy have significantly improved hot flash frequency and severity, mood changes, fatigue and anxiety (13). Researchers also found that these therapies had few side effects. Carpenter JS, Neal JG. Other complementary and alternative medicine modalities: acupuncture, magnets, reflexology, and homeopathy. Am J Med. 2005 Dec 19;118 Suppl 12B:109-17.
A survey carried out in a British homeopathic hospital showed that homeopathy is effective in treating hot flushes in both women who have reached menopause and women who suffered from breast cancer. Researchers found an effect both in women who were taking hormonal drugs for their breast cancer and those who where not. Clover A, Ratsey D. Homeopathic treatment of hot flushes: a pilot study. Homeopathy, 2002 Apr;91(2):75-9. Homeopathy reduced symptoms in a trial of women suffering from hot flashes after having undergone surgery, chemotherapy and radiation treatment for breast cancer. These women particularly seemed to experience an improved general health state (quality of life) even one year after homeopathic treatment. The effect was particularly significant in women who were not on conventional hormonal drugs. The study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled US study of women who suffered from hot flashes.
Jacobs J, Herman P, Heron K, Olsen S, Vaughters L. Homeopathy for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Feb;11(1):21-7.
Infertility
In a trial on fertility disorders researchers found positive effect of a homeopathic prescriptions in 38 out of 67 women (57 %). Positive results were found on inducing pregnancy, as well as a number of factors that are important to enable pregnancy, including regulating menstruation (both to induce spontaneous menstruation and shorten the menstrual cycle), regulating hormones (improved concentration of progesterone in the luteal phase) and earlier ovulation.
Bergmann J, Luft B, Boehmann S, Runnebaum B, Gerhard I. The efficacy of the complex medication Phyto-Hypophyson L in female, hormone-related sterility. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical double-blind study. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2000 Aug;7(4):190-9.
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 14 of 21
Sperm quality
A research trial of 45 sub-fertile men showed that homeopathy improved both the number and the quality of sperm. Significant changes were found in sperm density, percentage of sperm with good progressive motility and density of sperm with good propulsive motility. The general health of the patients also improved significantly. It did not matter whether these men were subject to stress or had been childless for a long period of time.
Gerhar I, Wallis E. Individualized homeopathic therapy for male infertility. Homeopathy. 2002 Jul;91(3):133-44.
Pregnancy-related problems Homeopathy can increase well-being prior to pregnancy, improve the chances of conception, treat morning sickness during pregnancy, post-partum bruising of mother and newborn infant, breast feeding problems and postnatal depression.
Kaplan B. Homoeopathy: In pregnancy and for the under-fives. Prof Care Mother Child. 1994 Aug-Sep;4(6):185-7.
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 15 of 21

KEY TRIALS AND SURVEYS
ADHD
A randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial of 62 children showed significant improvement of visual global perception, impulsivity and divided attention (p→0.0001). The trial suggests scientific evidence of the effectiveness of homeopathy in the treatment of ADHD, particularly in the areas of behavioural and cognitive functions.
Frei H, Everts R, von Ammon K, Kaufman F, Walther D, Hsu-Schmitz SF, Collenberg M, Fuhrer K, Hassink R, Steinlin M, Thurneysen An. Homeopathic treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. Eur J Pediatr. 2005 Jul 27.
In a trial to assess the efficacy of homeopathy in 115 hyperactive patients (mean age 8.3 years, range 3-17 y) compared to methylphenidate 75% of the children responded to homeopathy, reaching a clinical improvement rating of 73%. Children who did not respond to homeopathic treatment were prescribed methylphenidate (after an average period of 22 months of homeopathic treatment).
Frei H, Thurneysen A. Treatment for hyperactive children: homeopathy and methylphenidate compared in a family setting. Br Homeopath J. 2001 Oct;90/4):178-9.
ME/CFS
A randomised double-blind trial involving 62 patients with ME, reported in some detail, found that 33% of patients in the group receiving homeopathic remedies showed definite improvement compared with none in the placebo group.
Awdry R. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1996; February, March, April.
In a triple-blind randomised controlled trial of 86 patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients in the homeopathic medicine group showed clinically significant improvement with significantly more improvement on fatigue, compared to patients receiving placebo.
Weatherley-Jones E, Nicholl JP, Thomas KJ, Parry GJ, McKendrik MW, Green ST, Stanley PJ, Lynch SPJ. A randomised, controlled, triple-blind trial of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment for chronic fatique syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 56 (2004) 189-197.
Surgery
In a survey of 26 patients receiving homeopathic Arnica montana or placebo after face-lift operation, patients receiving homeopathic Arnica montana had statistically significant smaller areas of ecchymosis (bruising) after operation.
Seeley BM, Denton AB, Ahn MS, Maas CS. Effect of Homeopathic Arnica montana on Bruising in Face-lifts. Results of a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Arch Facial Plast Surg/Vol 8, Jan/Feb 2006.

Dengue haemorrhagic fever
Dengueinum 30 was administered to at least 39,200 people in the Delhi area during an epidemic of Dengue haemorrhagic fever. Follow-up of 23,520 people 10 days later showed only 5 people (0.125%) had developed mild symptoms, with the rest showing no signs or symptoms of the disease. (During epidemics of dengue, attack rates among susceptible are often 40-50 %, but may reach 80-90 %, World Health Organisation) Central Council of Research in Homoeopathy. CCRH News 1996-1997. An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 16 of 21

Cost benefit
In a comparative cohort study of 493 patients with chronic diagnoses results indicated greater improvement in patients' assessments after homeopathic versus conventional treatment (adults: homeopathy from 5.7 to 3.2; conventional 5.9 to 4.4, p = 0.002; children: from 5.1 to 2.6, and 3.9 to 2.7, p → 0.001). Physician assessments were also more favourable for children who had received homeopathic treatment. There were no significant differences in costs between the two treatment groups. Witt C, Keil T, Selim D, Roll S, Vance W, Wegscheider K, Willich SN. Outcome and costs of homoeopathic and conventional treatment strategies: A comparative cohort study in patients with chronic disorders. Complementary Therapies in Medicine (2005) 13, 79-86. A 4-year study of 84 patients treated homeopathically showed average cost savings for drugs per patient of £60.40 (range £12.48 to £703.95). 64 patients were cured, 16 showed significant improvement, 5 moderate improvement affecting daily living, 5 showed no change or were unsure, and 10 are still under treatment. No side-effects of treatment were reported.
Jain A. Does homeopathy reduce the cost of conventional drug prescribing? A study of comparative prescribing costs in General Practice. Homeopathy (2003) 92, 71-76.
In a survey of 223 patients in an NHS General Practice, the number of consultations with general practitioners was reduced by 70% in a 1 year period. Expenses for medication were reduced by 50% when homeopathic treatment was made available. Christie EA, Ward AT. Report on NHS practice-based homoeopathy project. Analysis of effectiveness and cost of homoeopathic treatment within ad GP practice at St. Margaret's Surgery, Bradford on Avon, Wilts. September 1996. The Society of Homeopaths. ISBH 1 901262 006. In a study of 351 adults suffering from allergies, 35.3% received homeopathic treatment, the researchers concluded that alternative medicine is used widely for allergies by the general population and is associated with considerable costs. This has freedom of choice and cost-benefit implications for the healthcare system and health policy. The study also showed that alternative medicine users were better educated than non-users, and assessed the results of alternative medicine as very good (28.6%) or rather good (53.8%).
Schafer T, Riehle A, Wichmann HE, RingJ. Alternative medicine in allergies-prevalence, patterns of use, and costs. Allergy 2002; 57: 694-700.
A study of the cost and effectiveness of homeopathy suggested that doctors practising homeopathy issue fewer prescriptions and at a lower cost than their colleagues. The main costs for homeopathic treatment are for consultations with each individual patient. Costs for the actual medications used are relatively low, particularly when compared with conventional drugs.
Swayne J. The cost, effectiveness of homoeopathy. A pilot study, proposals for future research. Br Homoeopath J 1992; 81: 148-150.
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 17 of 21

Basic research
The effect of high dilutions
In an experimental study of ultra-high dilutions of litihum chloride and sodium chloride, researchers found emission of light even in dilutions beyond Avogadro's number (10-30 g cm-3). The solutions were irradiated by x- and gamma-rays at 77 K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. Thermoluminescence was studied during the process.
Rey L. Thermoluminescence ofultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride. Physica A 323 (2003) 67-74.
In an experimental study of extremely diluted and succussed solutions (1x10-5 mol kg-1, chemically identical to distilled water) researchers found that the diluted and succussed solution resulted in exothermic excess of heat (heat resulting from chemical reactions), higher electrical conductivity and pH compared to an untreated substance. The authors conclude that they show that successive dilutions and succussions can permanently alter the physico-chemical properties of the water solvent. The authors are unable to explain the phenomena.
Elia V, Niccoli M. New physico-chemical properties of extremely diluted aqueous solutions. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 75 (2004) 815-836.
In a multi-centre study including four research centres in Europe the effect of high dilutions of histamine (10-30 - 10-38 M) were confirmed. Researchers were able to document that high dilutions of histamine inhibit human basophil degranulation. Results cannot be explained through molecular theories.
Belon P, Cumps J, Ennis M, Mannaioni PF, Roberfroid M, Sainte-Laudy J, Wiegant FAC. Histamine dilutions modulate basophil activation. Inflamm. Res. 2004; 53: 181-188.
The effect of high dilutions was documented in an experiment showing the effect of highly diluted Belladonna on acetylcholine-induced contraction of the rat ileum. The model is reproducible and highly recognised in 'the scientific world'.
Bastide M (ed). Signals and Images. Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997: 161-170
A placebo-controlled homeopathic pathogenic trial, more commonly known as a proving, clearly demonstrated that provers who took the substances in C30 potency experienced significantly more symptoms than a placebo group (P→0.001). Provers were given either Etna Lava C30, Hydrogenium peroxidatum C30, or placebo. Where the placebo group experienced some symptoms, they were more short-lived compared to the verum group which experienced persistent symptoms for the first 30 days. Provers in the verum group also experienced more 'old symptoms' returning. A weakness of the survey is that it only included 21 provers. Researchers have now called for more data from more provers.
Dominici G, Bellavite P, di Stanislao C, Gulia P, Pitari G. Double-blind, placebo-controlled homeopathic pathogenetic trials: Symptom collection and analysis. Homeopathy (2006) 96, 123-130.
In an experimental study on the effect of histamine on basophile granulocytes, researchers found an effect of histamine diluted beyond Avogadro's number.
Lorenz I, Schneider EM, Stolz P, Brack A, Strube J. Sensitive flow cytometric method to test basophil activation influenced by homeopathic histamine dilutions. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2003 Dec;10(6):316-24.

An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 18 of 21
Treatment of animals
In a blinded study where rats were treated for urinary infections results showed that rats treated with homeopathic remedies had clear reduction of bacterial colonies. Results were at least as clear as for treatment with antibiotics. Untreated rats had no changes in bacteria colonies, compared to a reduction to 33 % of original bacteria levels in rats treated with antibiotics, and 22 % and 39 % in rats treated with homeopathic remedies (Phosphorus and self-nosode).
Goncalves et al. O uso da homeopatia no tratamento da infeccao urinaria em ratas. Anais do VIII SINAPIH; 20-22 May, 2004: p.25-26.
A study of homeopathically protentised remedies showed a reduction in the need for repetition of insemination and reduced semen loss in treatment of fertilisation of female pigs.
Riaucourt A. L´Exemple de la Filiere Porcine. Annals of the "Entretiens Internationaux de Monaco 2002", 5-6 October, 2002.
In a study of homeopathically potentised remedies the incidence of haematomas was reduced by 30 % in turkeys during transportation. The study was randomised, placebo controlled and double blinded.
Filliat C. Particularite de l´utilisation de l´homeopathie en production avicole. Annals of the "Entretiens Internationaux de Monaco 2002", 5-6 October 2002.
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 19 of 21
RESEARCH WEBSITE ADDRESSES
CAM base http://cambase.dmz.uni-wh.de/opencam/index_en.html
HomBRex Database (Carstens stiftung) http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/hombrex/index.php
Pubmed (National Library of Medicine) www.pubmed.com
British Medical Journal http://bmj.bmjjournals.com
(search for 'homeopathy')
New Scientist www.newscientist.com (search for 'homeopathy')
Healthworld Online (Medline, Medical Research & Document Delivery)
http:www4.infotrieve.com/newmedline/summary.asp
Biomail www.biomail.org This site offers free re

gular updates by e-mail. Hosted by Medical Informatics Department at State University of New York, Stony Brook University Hospital and Medical Centre.
An evidence-based resource about Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.cam.org.nz
Funded by the New Zealand Ministry of Health.
Annals of Internal Medicine http://www.annals.org/cgi/search?fulltext=homeopathy
University of York http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/ehc73.pdf
Biomed Central (homeopathy review) http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/1/12
British Homeopathic Library http://hominform.soutron.com/
The Research Council for Complementary Medicine http://www.rccm.org.uk
Groupe International de Recherche sur l'Infinitesimal http://www.giriweb.com
National Centre for Homeopathy http://www.homeopathic.org/research.htm
Homeopathic Educational Services http://www.homeopathic.com/articles/research/index.php
Homeopathy (the journal) http://www.harcourt-international.com/journals/homp
Homeopathy Research Institute http://www.homeopathyresearchinstitute.org/index.htm
Boiron http://www.boiron.com/en/htm/04-politique/clinique.htm
Official Indian research centrehttp://www.ccrhindia.org
Carstens stiftung (Germany)
http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/eng/index.html (English pages)
ISI Web of Knowledge (resembles PubMed but includes more areas)
http://isi3.isiknowledge.com/portal.cgi
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (free articles)
www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882
NAFKAM, Tromso (Norway) (research info will be included) http://uit.no/nafkam/omnafkam
Vifab (Denmark) www.vifab.dk
Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients publishes a print alternative medicine magazine. http://www.townsendletter.com
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 20 of 21

Comments and corrections to the ENHR report on
'An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys'
August 2009
Comments
European Network for Homeopathy Researchers (ENHR)
Kate Chatfield Petter Viksveen
E-mail: kchatfield@uclan.ac.uk E-mail: homeopat@email.com
An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys, ENHR, August 2009 Page 21 of 21

⑭調査一覧

エワルト・ストットラー(オランダ)

ホメオパシーは、以下のような調査から科学的にも証明されています:
-Clinical trials of homeopathy J Kleijnen., Knipschild P., ter Riet G.
British Medical Journal 1991; 302, p. 316-323.
- Linde, K., N. Clausius, G. Ramirez, D. Melchart, F. Eitel, L.V.
Hedges, W.B. Jonas. (1997).
Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis
of placebo-controlled trials. Lancet; 350: 834-843
- Critical literature review on the effectiveness of homeopathy:
overview of data from homeopathic medicine trials, Boissel J.P.,
Cucherat M., Haugh M.,
Gauthier E. , Homeopathic Medicine Research Group. Report to the European. Commission, Brussels 1996, Chap.11, p.195-210.
- Unconventional medicine, Final report of the management committee 1993-1998 European Commission, Directorate-General Science, Research and Development: COST Action B4,
(EUR 18429 EN; Supplement 1999 (EUR 19110 EN).
- Shang A, Huwiler-Muntener K, Nartey L, Juni P, Dorig S, Sterne JA,
Pewsner D, Egger M.. Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects?
Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathy. Lancet 2005;366:726-732.
- Ludtke R, Rutten ALB. The conclusions on the effectiveness of homeopathy highly depend on the set of analyzed trials, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2008;61.
Doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2008.06.015 - Jacobs J, Jimenez LM, Gloyd SS, Gale JL, Crothers D (1994). Treatment of acute childhood diarrhea with homoeopathic medicine ? A randomized clinical trial in Nicaragua.
Pediatrics, 93:719?725.
- Jacobs J, Jimenez LM, Malthouse S, Chapman E, Crothers D, Masuk M, Jonas WB (2000). Homeopathic treatment of acute childhood diarrhea - results from a clinical trial in Nepal. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 6:131?139.
- Jacobs J, Jonas WB, Jimenez-Perez M, Crothers D (2003). Homeopathy for childhood diarrhea: combined results and metaanalysis from three randomized, controlled clinical trials.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 22:229?234.
- Homeopathy and conventional medicine - an outcome study comparing effectiveness in a primary care setting, Reilly D., Fischer M., Singh B., Haidvogel M., Heger M.,
Journal Alternative & Complementary Medicine (7) 2, 2001, p.149-159. - Witt C, Keil T, Selim D, Roll S, Vance W, Wegscheider K, Willich SN (2005).
Outcome and costs of homeopathic and conventional treatment strategies: a comparative cohort study in patients with chronic disorde
rs. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 13:79?86. - Spence D, Thompson EA, Barron SJ (2005). Homeopathic treatment for chronic disease: a 6-year university-hospital outpatient observational study.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 5:793?798. - Bornhoft G, Wolf U, Ammon K, Righetti M, Maxion-Bergemann S,Baumgartner S, Thurneysen AE, m Matthiessen PF.
Effectiveness, safety and cost effectiveness of homeopathy in general practice - summarized health technology assessment. Forsch Komplementarmed. 2006;13 Suppl 2:19-29.
Epub 2006 Jun 26.
- "Critical review and meta-analysis of serial agitated dilutions in experimental toxicology".
- Neuroprotection from glutamate toxicity with ultra-low dose glutamate. Jonas W., Lin Yu, Tortella F.NeuroReport 12:335-339, 2001. 14 Histamine dilutions modulate basophil activation Belon P. , Cumps J., Ennis M., Mannaioni P.F., Robertfroid M., Sainte-Laudy J., Wiegant F.A.C.. Inflammation research 53, (2004) 181-188

⑮ホメオパシー批判が科学的証拠を基本としていない事の説明

William Alderson 要約

全文

A Summary of the Failures of Trick or Treatment? by Simon Singh and Edzard Ernst based on Halloween Science written by William Alderson RSHom LLSCH
on behalf of H:MC21
(Homeopathy: Medicine for the 21st Century)
March 2009.
(c) William Alderson 2009
A Summary of the Failures of Trick or Treatment? by William Alderson p. 1
Introduction
Trick or Treatment? by Simon Singh and Edzard Ernst claims to "examine the various alternative therapies in a scrupulous manner" (p.3). In Halloween Science we offer a full critique of their book, and assess the validity of this claim, both in general and specifically in respect of homeopathy, by analysing the authors' own arguments and evidence for accuracy, consistency and reliability. The present article is a summary with examples of nineteen major faults exhibited in Trick or Treatment?. The faults are grouped under four headings: Evidence, Science, Definitions and Analytical Tools. These headings reflect the main areas of failure, and sub-headings relate to specific issues.
Evidence

1. Unsupported evidence
Many of the figures, trials, events, quotations, statements, opinions and explanations presented in Trick or Treatment are unreferenced, making it difficult to verify the information, despite the fact that some of these form a significant part of their argument. For example, the authors provide insufficient support for the following statements: Figures: "Indeed, it is estimated that the annual global spend on all alternative medicines is in the region of £40 billion, making it the fastest-growing area of medical spending." (p. 2) [In this case the information (amount spent) does not even support the concluson drawn from it (rate of growth in spending).]
Trials: "In fact, a major study in 2006 confirmed numerous previous investigations showing that fears over mercury fillings were groundless." (p. 265) [This actually appears to have been two separate studies.]
Events: "This success was repeated during a cholera epidemic in London in 1854, when patients at the London Homoeopathic Hospital had a survival rate of 84 per cent, compared to just 47 per cent for patients receiving more conventional treatment at the nearby Middlesex Hospital." (p. 107) Quotations: " 'A therapeutic agent cannot be employed with any discrimination or probability of success in a given case, unless its general efficacy, in analogous cases, has been previously ascertained'." (p. 23) [This is ascribed to Pierre Louis. No support is offered for its basic assumption.] Statements: "These treatments are piled high in every pharmacy, written about in every magazine, discussed on millions of web pages and used by billions of people, yet they are regarded with scepticism by many doctors." (p.1) [The scale of these figures requires supporting evidence. For example, with a world population of approximately seven billion people, "billions" means more than 28% of people.] Opinions: "Homeopaths would argue that the remedy has some memory of the original ingredient, which somehow influences the body, but this makes no scientific sense." (p.100) [No justification is offered.] A Summary of the Failures of Trick or Treatment? by William Alderson p. 2 Explanations: "This would involve giving daily doses of a homeopathic remedy to several healthy people and then asking them to keep a detailed diary of any symptoms that might emerge over the course of a few weeks." (p. 96) [This is actually an inaccurate description of a homeopathic proving.]

2. Information out of context
Not only is information unreferenced, but it is often without context. Thus the figure quoted above for "the annual global spend on all alternative medicines" is not put into the context of the estimated $4.1 trillion (£2.8 trillion) global spend on medicine as a whole.1 Similarly the statement that The bottom line is that none of the above [alternative] treatments is backed by the sort of evidence that would be considered impressive by the current standards of medical research. (p. 238) is not compared with the British Medical Journal's Clincal Evidence report that Of around 2500 [commonly used NHS] treatments covered 13% are rated as beneficial, 23% likely to be beneficial, 8% as trade off between benefits and harms, 6% unlikely to be beneficial, 4% likely to be ineffective or harmful, and 46%, the largest proportion, as unknown effectiveness.2

3. Double-standards for evidence
The authors accept material which supports their argument despite its failure to meet the standards they set for material which supports an opposing view. For example, they complain about the Bristol Homeopathic Hospital outcome survey (2005) that The study had no control group, so it was impossible to determine whether these patients would have improved without any homeopathic treatment. (p. 140)
Yet they claim that it is possible to determine consequential harm without a control group: There are numerous reports of patients with serious conditions (e.g. diabetes, cancer, AIDS) suffering harm after following irresponsible advice from alternative practitioners instead of following the advice of a doctor. (p. 186)
Similarly they refer to a spoof story about "DiHydrogen MonOxide" (H2O), alleged to show that 'You can give people this totally accurate (but emotionally laden, and sensationalist) information about water. When you then survey these people, about three quarters of them will willingly sign a petition to ban it.' (p. 267)
But they do not mention whether this research has been replicated and confirmed, although they point out that "independent replication is a vital part of how science progresses." (p. 125). Nor do they provide any information about what medium was used to publish the article, what size of population was involved, how they were selected, what control was used, how the responses were A Summary of the Failures of Trick or Treatment? by William Alderson p. 3 surveyed, nor, crucially, what relationship the population sample has to the population using alternative medicine. In other words, it is purely anecdotal and satisfies none of the requirements they insist are necessary for a valid trial.
Science

4. Confusion of absence of proof with proof of absence
The authors repeatedly assume that lack of evidence can be taken as proof that such evidence is unobtainable, and that a theoretical explanation is wrong. Thus they claim that "the traditional principles of acupuncture are deeply flawed, as there is no evidence at all to demonstrate the existence of Ch'i or meridians" (p. 83). Similarly, in the case of homeopathy the authors allege that "hundreds of trials have failed to deliver significant or convincing evidence to support the use of homeopathy for the treatment of any particular ailment" (p. 139), yet they then go on to use this alleged lack of evidence to claim that "the scientific evidence indicates that homeopathy is wholly ineffective" (p. 231). In each case there is no evidence against the therapeutic approach, but a mixture of evidence for it1 which is good, ambiguous or insufficient. This suggests that there is a problem of lack of research, not lack of validity of the therapeutic approach.

5. Disregard for the importance of theory
On the very first page, the authors state that "science employs experiments, observations, trials, argument and discussion in order to arrive at an objective consensus on the truth" (p. 1). They go on to state that "Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the scientific method. It explains how scientists, by experimenting and observing, can determine whether or not a particular therapy is effective" (p. 4). At no point, however, do they mention the importance of theory to science, despite the fact that an essential part of the scientific method is the interaction of experiment with theory. Nor do they discuss the relative merits and justificatons for different medical theories. Instead the authors refer to their "scientific evidence" in the abstract, as though it were independent of its specific context of randomised controlled trials based on the pharmaceutical research model. Thus, they fail to acknowledge the existence of their own theoretical assumptions, and fail to question the appropriateness of those assumptions when assessing alternative medicine.
1 Paolo Bellavite and Andrea Signorini, The Emerging Science of Homeopathy: Complexity, biodynamics, and nanopharmacology (Berkley: North Atlantic Books, 2002).
A Summary of the Failures of Trick or Treatment? by William Alderson p. 4

6. Assumption that orthodox medicine is scientific
No justification of orthodox medicine as a science is ever provided, and yet all references to the "evidence", "testing", "trials", "studies", "investigations", "research", "information", "criticisms", "methods", "foundations", "rigour", "approach", "attitude", "thinking", "understanding" or "point of view" are described as "scientific" when based on the pharmaceutical model of orthodox clinical trials.3 In this way the authors appear to be trying to establish, through repetition rather than reason, the idea that this approach alone is the "scientific" means of testing the validity of alternative medicine. They also refer to alternative therapies as "unscientific" (p. 163), or as having "no scientific sense" (pp. 100 and 226).
Similarly, without any explanation of the meaning in this context of "philosophies" (that is, 'theories') or of the alleged "conflict" the authors state that These other therapies have struggled to be accepted by mainstream medicine, partly because their underlying philosophies conflict with our scientific understanding of anatomy, physiology and pathology. (p. 196)

7. Failure to understand orthodox medicine
Curiously, the authors make mistakes about orthodox medicine, such as claiming that "the term 'vitamin' describes an organic nutrient that is vital for survival, but which the body cannot produce itself" (p. 15), when the body can produce vitamins A, B3, D and K; or appearing to confuse chronic pancreatitis with acute pancreatitis (p. 186). They also generalise "the ability of oranges and lemons to cure scurvy" (p. 18) into evidence that the RCT can be used "to decide what works (lemons for scurvy)" (p. 36). In fact, vitamin C (and fruit containing it) successfully treat scurvy because scurvy is simply a result of a deficiency of vitamin C. As such, this treatment has no similarity with orthodox or alternative treatments for infections and chronic diseases, and to confuse the two types of treatment suggests a general failure to understand the nature of medicine.
Definitions

8. Four different definitions of alternative medicine
The authors initially define alternative medicine as (our emphasis) … any therapy that is not accepted by the majority of mainstream doctors, and typically this also means that these alternative therapies have mechanisms that lie outside the current understanding of modern medicine. (p. 1).
A Summary of the Failures of Trick or Treatment? by William Alderson p. 5
In Chapter 4 the primacy of this lack of acceptance later changes to that of lack of understanding of the mechanism of action, since "chiropractors have become part of the medical mainstream" (p. 147), but their therapy allegedly "makes no sense at all from a modern scientific point of view. That is why chiropractic treatment is still considered by many as an alternative medicine" (p. 147).
In Chapter 5 the authors again note that "other therapies have struggled to be accepted by mainstream medicine" (p. 196), but in the case of herbal medicine … plants contain a complex cocktail of pharmacologically active chemicals, so it is not surprising that some of them can impact on our wellbeing. Consequently, herbal medicine has been embraced by science to a far greater extent than the other treatments above. (p. 196)
They add that "there is general agreement that much of modern pharmacology has evolved out of the herbal tradition" (p. 196). As a result acceptance is now based on understanding rather than being contrasted with it, this understanding being specifically the chemical action recognised by pharmacology. Finally, in Chapter 6, acceptance becomes dependent on testing according to the procedures used by pharmacology, tests which have been repeatedly called "scientific". Thus the authors claim that This brings us to an interesting situation: any provably safe and effective alternative medicine is not really an alternative medicine at all, but rather it becomes a conventional medicine. Therefore, alternative medicine, by definition, seems to consist of treatments that are untested, or unproven, or disproven, or unsafe, or placebos, or only marginally beneficial. (p. 287)
However the principles on which these "scientific" tests of pharmacology are based have never been properly explained or scientifically justified.
Furthermore, while alternative therapies may not be accepted because they have not been proven effective according to criteria external to those therapies, many common orthodox treatments are accepted whether or not they have been proven effective according to the authors' own criteria, since (as we have already pointed out) orthodox medicine includes 64% to 87% of commonly used treatments which have not been proven safe and effective.

9. Failure to define significant terms
We have noted the authors' failure to define 'science' properly and their constant reference to orthodox medicine as "scientific". In addition, their terms for orthodox medicine do not refer to its theoretical principles but only to its official status, such as "mainstream", "conventional" or "establishment". Some essential terms are not defined at all, such as 'disease', 'cure' and A Summary of the Failures of Trick or Treatment? by William Alderson p. 6
'effective'. Given that the whole of their examination rests on proving whether alternative medicine is effective or not, failure to define this term seriously undermines their argument. The authors have an ambivalent attitude to some other terms, such as 'holistic' and 'individualisation'. On the one hand they refer to them as "impressive buzzwords" (p. 2), but on the other they use them as legitimate terms (pp. 138 and 223). They also refer to "the fundamental question: 'Is alternative medicine effective for treating disease?'" (p. 3), and then note that "when unpacked it becomes somewhat complicated and has many answers" (p. 3). Indeed it 'unpacks' to no less than 25,900 questions, which makes their definition of 'fundamental' unusual at the least.

10. Arguments based on readers' preconceptions
Because the authors fail to define their terms, readers are frequently left to assume meanings for them. The effect of this is that readers rely on preconceptions which are unquestioned and unjustified but assumed to be valid. For example, the term 'effective' is undefined, but it is constantly used by the authors with reference to RCTs. In the absence of any definition of the criteria being used or of the appropriateness of these criteria to specific trials, the reader assumes a 'valid' definition. This means that conclusions based on these trials are accepted, depite the lack of evidence for the validity of these trials and the reliability of their results. In other words, the authors' are presenting their arguments so as to deliberately exploit "confirmation bias, which is the tendency to interpret events in a way that confirms preconceptions" (p. 234).

11. Failure to take into account different definitions of terms
The failure of the authors to define their terms has even greater significance given that some alternative therapies (especially homeopathy) have definitions of 'disease', 'cure' and 'effectiveness' which are significantly different from those used by orthodox medicine. In Halloween Science we present eleven examples of how these differences can impact on clinical trials, causing the results to range from ambiguous to meaningless. The authors ignore these issues, yet their own comment about trials of homeopathy indicates that such a failure may be having real consequences, since "over and over again, the evidence is either non-exstent or shaky" (p. 139). Furthermore, other therapies also exhibit ambiguity in RCT evidence, indicating that the problem of erroneous definitions may affect trials of those therapies too.
A Summary of the Failures of Trick or Treatment? by William Alderson p. 7

12. Failure to present the principles of evidence-based medicine accurately (EBM)
Just as the authors leave theory out of their definition of science, so they leave clinical expertise based on experience out of their definition of EBM. They quote David Sackett as stating that "Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients" (p. 24), but they do not add that he went on to state that "without clinical expertise, practice risks becoming tyrannised by evidence, for even excellent external evidence may be inapplicable to or inappropriate for an individual patient".4 Instead they rely on RCTs alone and attack evidence from clinical experience. In the case of the Bristol Homeopathic Hospital outcome survey, for example, "As far as the public was concerned, this appeared to be an extraordinarily positive result" (p. 140), but the authors claim that this "70 per cent improvement rate" (p. 140) is "largely meaningless" (p. 140), and justify their opinion with explanations which are incompatible with the facts or their other statements.

13. Failure to present homeopathy accurately The authors describe the nature and development of homeopathy so inadequately and inaccurately as to make it impossible to assess the validity of their arguments. They state that "after the dilution, the mixture is vigorously shaken, which completes the potentization process" (p. 98),
yet immediately afterwards refer to (our emphasis) "further dilution and potentization" (p. 98).
They refer to "the remedy that offers a perfect match with the patient's symptoms" (p. 101), yet show a perfect match is impossible as their example has symptoms which cannot coexist in one person at one time. They state that the homeopathic term "miasmatic" (p. 255) refers to "poisonous vapours" (p. 255) and that homeopaths "tend to reject … the role of bacteria as agents of disease" (p. 105) even though Hahnemann himself stated that the cholera-miasm finds a favourable element for its multiplication, and grows into an enormous brood of those excessively minute, invisible, living creatures, so inimical to human life, of which the contagious matter of the cholera most probably consists.5
With errors of this magnitude in their explanation of one therapy, it is reasonable to distrust their explanations of all the other therapies too, but we do not have the expertise to recognise if such errors do actually occur in other cases.

14. Doubts about the validity of orthodox drug therapy
The authors show that orthodox drug therapy attempts to find "the active ingredient of each plant and isolate it" (p. 197), and yet they also accept that in some cases the effects may be "due to a combination of chemicals, each one working to enhance the effect of the others" (p. 200), and A Summary of the Failures of Trick or Treatment? by William Alderson p. 8
further that "we now accept that almost every medical intervention carries a risk of side-effects" (p. 205). In other words they acknowledge that the goal of a single chemical with a single effect is illusory, a point confirmed by knowledge of the variable action of chemicals at cellular level.6 The authors consider (our emphasis) "meticulously documenting its impact on a total of 156 patients" (p. 194) (that is, people suffering from diseases) to be a good testing regime for a drug, yet The Merck Manual of Medical Information notes that "many factors influence drug response", including "disease".7 In other words testing drugs on the sick is an inherently flawed approach. The authors claim that the general results of trials are essential for determining treatment for individual patients, yet state that there is "no guarantee that a treatment that had succeeded during a set of trials would cure a particular patient" (p. 23). These issues raise serious questions about the validity of the approach used by orthodox medicine, and about the validity of using its tests to assess alternative medicine. The authors also attack the majority of front-line orthodox practitioners as unscientific, alleging that they are "ignorant" (p. 269), "lazy" (p. 269) or "convinced … despite all the lack of evidence" (p. 270) when it comes to alternative medicine.
Analytical tools

15. Failure of the Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT)
While the authors demonstrate that the RCT is an appropriate tool for identifying harmful interventions, they fail to offer evidence of its validity as a test of beneficial interventions. They also note that after trials have been completed "doctors are encouraged to continue to monitor and report any adverse incidents … [so] we can, if risks emerge, withdraw a drug" (p. 178). In other words, RCTs by themselves are not even reliable guides to the extent of harm produced by drugs. As has been stated above, there is also "no guarantee that a treatment that had succeeded during a set of trials would cure a particular patient" (p. 23), so the RCT does not produce evidence valid for an individual case. In other words, the RCT is not an appropriate tool for identifying whether alternative medicine is effective.

16. Failure of the meta-analysis
The authors rely on meta-analyses of RCTs for their conclusions about homeopathy and chiropractic therapy, yet they point out that, for example, "Not surprisingly, Linde's conclusion was questioned by opponents of homeopathy. Critics argued that his meta-analysis had been too lax" (p. 134). Similarly the meta-analysis by Shang et al.8 met with great criticism, particularly as regards its lack of information about the criteria used for selecting the final fourteen trials out of A Summary of the Failures of Trick or Treatment? by William Alderson p. 9 110 'matched pairs'.9 In short, not only are such trials based on RCTs which may not be valid, but they are also liable to subjectivity in the choice of selection criteria.

17. Failure of the placebo effect
The authors explain the effects of alternative medicine primarily by reference to the placebo effect without any scientific justification. Not only do they admit that "scientists strive to establish the scientific basis of the placebo effect" (p. 62), but they acknowledge that it is variable (p. 244); individual (p. 64); may be stimulated by completely opposite circumstances, such as "novelty" (p. 57) or "tradition" (p. 223); and can be an "ineffective treatment that can nevertheless be consoling" (p. 57), or produce "real physiological changes" (p. 60) without any explanation for these different consequences. They also fail to show that there is any consistent similarity between the placebo effect and the observed effects of alternative therapies.

18. Denial of the importance of individuality
The authors acknowledge that the curative process is individually determined. In the case of drug treatments they note that, despite the RCT, "there was still no guarantee that a treatment … would cure a particular patient" (p. 23), whilst in the case of the placebo effect they allege that "the actual placebo effect for a particular patient depends entirely on the belief system and personal experiences of that individual" (p. 62). This indicates that Ernst and Singh should be aware that any scientific system of medicine needs to take individuality into account. However, when testing alternative therapies which consider individualisation essential, the authors devalue its importance. For example, when discussing homeopathy they note that "most trials have not been individualized" (p. 138), but they do not point out that those trials are therefore not valid or at least suspect. Furthermore, in the examples they then give of "individualized" trials, the individualisation is wholly inadequate.

19. Denial of the importance of clinical experience
The limited version of evidence-based medicine used by the authors relies exclusively on controlled clinical trials, even though these provide only generalised evidence of effectiveness. As has been pointed out above, the full approach insists that expertise derived from clinical experience is necessary for the selection of the correct treatment in a particular case because of the individuality of patients. Clinical experience is also crucial in revealing some of the harmful effects of drugs tested by RCT.
A Summary of the Failures of Trick or Treatment? by William Alderson p. 10
In the case of homeopathy the definition of effectiveness recognises and uses the individuality of the patient as a basis for both determining treatment and assessing the results. As a result there may be "conflict between personal experience and scientific research" (p. 231) because of a failure to define the research protocols correctly. Such is the authors' reliance on RCTs and devaluation of clinical experience, however, that they do not challenge the trial protocols in order to explain this "conflict" even though eleven possible failures can be identified in these protocols. Instead they challenge the validity of experience. In doing so they attribute the higher rates of success in clinical practice to "the Hawthorne effect" (p. 65), "natural healing processes" (p. 140), "regression to the mean" (p. 233), remedies "contaminated, perhaps with steroids or other conventional pharmaceuticals" (p. 232), "other treatments" (p. 140), "coincidence" (p. 232), "the placebo effect" (p. 140), and even "patients being reluctant to disappoint whoever was interviewing them" (p. 140). None of these 'explanations' is supported by research evidence demonstrating that they have a significant impact on outcomes.
Conclusions
What is clear from the points listed above, is that Ernst and Singh have failed to provide a secure theoretical or evidential base for their argument. They have not defined their basic terms, they have not presented a theoretical relationship between evidence and practice, and they have arbitrarily rejected evidence. They have also used analytical tools which are either inherently inadequate for achieving objective and reliable conclusions, or which have been rendered inadequate for such a purpose by the limitations the authors set on their use. Furthermore, they rely heavily on unsupported statements, preconceptions, perjorative language, hyperbole, double standards, and facts which are misrepresented, juxtaposed and removed from context in order to support their argument. Such a biased and wholly inadequate examination of alternative medicine by two "trained scientists" (p. 3) is damaging to the credibility of orthodox medical researchers and science in general.
Trick or Treatment? also encourages a hazardous therapeutic environment for patients. By exploiting prejudice whilst claiming to offer "an unparalleled level of rigour, authority and independence" (p. 3), the authors help to alienate doctors and alternative therapists from each other. As a result patients are faced with the increased likelihood of orthodox and alternative practitioners being unable to communicate with each other or learn from the outcomes of different therapeutic approaches. They may even be faced with contradictory treatments which cannot be reconciled or even discussed with the relevant practitoners.

A Summary of the Failures of Trick or Treatment? by William Alderson p. 11 In brief, Trick or Treatment? has no validity as a scientific examination of alternative medicine, but is damaging to the credibility of science, and a threat to the safe and effective practice of medicine.

  1. Spending On Health: A Global Overview, World Health Organization, 2007,
    (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs319/en/index.html), accessed 21 February 2008.
  2. BMJ Clinical Evidence website, (http://clinicalevidence.bmj.com/ceweb/about/knowledge.jsp), accessed 23 February 2009.
  3. See pp. 4, 34, 35, 100, 116, 122, 147, 194, 196, 197, 199, 223, 231, 234, 239, 244, 269, 276, 284 for examples.
  4. David L Sackett, William M C Rosenberg, J A Muir Gray, R Brian Haynes, W Scott Richardson, 'Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't', BMJ, 312 (1996), 71-72 (13 January), at (http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/312/7023/71, accessed 6 December 2008.
  5. Samuel Hahnemann, 'Appeal to Thnking Philanthropists Respecting the Mode of Propagation of the Asiatic Cholera', (Leipzic: the author, 1831) in Samuel Hahnemann (trans. R E Dudgeon MD), The Lesser Writings of Samuel Hahnemann, 1851 edn (New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers, repr. edn 2002), p. 758. 6 See Paolo Bellavite MD and Andrea Signorini MD, The Emerging Science of Homeopathy: Complexity, biodynamics, and nanopharmacology (Berkley: North Atlantic Books, 2002), p. 141. 7 Robert M.D. (Editor in Chief) Berkow, The Merck Manual of Medical Information: Home edition (New York: Simon and Schuster Inc., 2000), p. 35. 8 Aijing Shang MD, Karin Huwiler-Muntener MD, Linda Nartey MD, Peter Juni MD, Stephan Dorig, Jonathan AC Sterne PhD, Daniel Pewsner MD, Prof Matthias Egger MD, 'Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathy', The Lancet, 366 (2005), 726-732 at ( http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(05)67177-2/fulltext), accessed 3 March 2009. 9 Klaus Linde, Wayne B Jonas, 'Meta-analysis of homoeopathy trials' (letter to the editor), The Lancet, 9503 (2005) at ( http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(05)67878-6/fulltext), accessed 3 March 2009; Peter Fisher, Brian Berman, Jonathan Davidson, David Reilly, Trevor Thompson and 29 others, Letter to the editor, The Lancet, 9503 (2005) at (http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(05)67879-8/fulltext), accessed 3 March 2009; and R Ludtke and A L B Rutten, 'The conclusions on the effectiveness of homeopathy highly depend on the set of analyzed trials', J. Clin. Epidemiol., (2008) at (doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2008.06.015); and A L B Rutten and C F Stolper, 'The 2005 meta-analysis of homeopathy: the importance of post-publication data', Homeopathy, 2008 at (doi:10.1016/j.homp.2008.09.008).

⑯ホメオパシー医学を使ったバナジープロトコルで治療された癌患者達

:アメリカ国立癌研究所のベストケースシリーズプログラム
プラサンタ・バナジー(父)&プラティップ・バナジー(息子) (インド人ホメオパス)

Abstract. Although many studies have been conducted on the role of alternative medicine in the treatment of cancer, only a few reports have been published regarding the total regression of malignant tumors. At the PBH Research Foundation (PBHRF), two of the authors have used homoeopathic therapy to treat many patients with various malignant tumors. The objective of the present study was to have their treatment procedures evaluated and validated by the United States (US) National Cancer Institute (NCI) Best Case Series (BCS) Program. Lung and oesophageal carcinoma patients were treated with homoeopathic remedies at the PBHRF according to Banerji's protocol until there was complete regression of the tumors. Case records including pathology and radiology reports for 14 patients were submitted for review by the US NCI BCS Program. Four of these cases had an independent confirmation of the diagnosis and radiographic response and were accepted as sufficient information for the NCI to initiate further investigation. These four cases are presented in detail in this report along with follow-up and outcome information. This study describes the process and outcome of a selected case series review through the NCI BCS Program. The results of the review were deemed to be sufficient to warrant NCIinitiated prospective research follow-up in the form of an observational study.
Introduction
Homoeopathy is a medical system whose underlying principle is based on the theory that 'like cures like'. Homoeopathic medications are produced by using solutions of compounds which, when ingested by healthy volunteers, produce symptom complexes that mimic various diseases e.g., ingesting quinine from cinchona bark induces symptoms similar to malaria (1). These solutions are serially diluted and succussed until the desired potency is produced. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), homoeopathy is the second most used medical system internationally, accounting for more than $1 billion in costs. Twenty to thirty percent of French and German physicians use homoeopathy in clinical practice as cited by WHO, 2001. In Great Britain, 5 homoeopathic hospitals are part of the National Health System and >30% of general practitioners use this type of treatment (2). In the United States, >500 physicians use homoeopathy in clinical practice and 5.5 million Americans use homoeopathic medicines (2-5). Since 1991, the NCI has had a process for evaluating data from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners that involves the same rigorous methods used in evaluating treatment responses with conventional medicine. This process, called the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Best Case Series (BCS) Program, provides an independent review of medical records, medical imaging and pathology materials from patients treated with unconventional cancer therapies (5). The Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) was established in October 1998 in order to coordinate and enhance the activities of the NCI in the arena of CAM. The Practice Assessment Program within OCCAM currently manages the NCI BCS Program (6,7). Through this program, staff from OCCAM work with CAM practitioners to identify appropriate, well-documented cases. The primary goal of this program is to obtain and review sufficient information to determine if NCI-initiated research on a specific intervention is warranted. Patients and methods Homoeopathy, like every scientific and efficient system of medicine, has evolved through the years and the method used to treat these cases is by specific medicines in specific potencies as per what is known today as 'The Banerji Protocols'. Initially, we selected 14 cases among 300 cancer patients who had been treated at the PBH Research Foundation (PBHRF) clinic in Kolkata (Calcutta), India for these studies. Among these 14 cases, only 10 cases were selected for review by the BCS Program. At that time we had in our records ONCOLOGY REPORTS 20: 69-74, 2008 69 Cancer patients treated with the Banerji protocols utilising homoeopathic medicine: A Best Case Series Program of the National Cancer Institute USA PRASANTA BANERJI1, DONALD R. CAMPBELL2 and PRATIP BANERJI1 1PB Homoeopathic Research Foundation, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 2Saint Luke's Hospital and University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO, USA Received February 21, 2008; Accepted April 23, 2008

Correspondence to: Dr Prasanta Banerji or Dr Pratip Banerji, PBH Research Foundation, 10/3/1 Elgin Road, Kolkata 700020, West Bengal, India E-mail: pbhrfindia@dataone.in Key words: homoeopathic medicines, lung and oesophageal cancers, National Cancer Institute Best Case Series 1260 cases of different types of cancers of which complete remission occurred in ~21% of cases following our treatment. Examples of these responses can be reviewed by accessing an internet user group (http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/Ruta6/) maintained by brain tumor patients where follow-up of 400 brain tumor cases from different countries, who have been treated on Banerji protocols presently indicate that >70% of patients are benefitting from treatment on our protocols. The slides were reviewed by a pathologist at the PBHRF. The selection criteria were as follows: a) recollection by PBHRF physicians that the patient had an improvement in his/her clinical condition concurrent with treatment at the PBHRF clinic; b) availability of the pathology report documenting the cancer diagnosis; and c) availability of medical imaging reports documenting an objective regression in tumor size. The relevant patient records were submitted to the OCCAM for review through the NCI BCS Program. An initial review by OCCAM of the documents from these cases indicated that these cases were eligible for further evaluation. The pathology slides and medical imaging studies, which were performed at the PBHRF, were requested and provided to the NCI for review. The histology and cytology slides were reviewed by a pathologist at the NCI Laboratory of Pathology and the medical imaging studies were reviewed by a radiologist in the Diagnostic Radiology Department (DRD) of the Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). After a complete review, these cases were presented at a meeting of the Cancer Advisory Panel for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAPCAM), a chartered committee advising the Director of the NIH and the Director of the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM) on July 8, 1999. Results Summaries of the cases and relevant documentation from the 14 clinical patients who met the three selection criteria were submitted to the NCI and reviewed by the director of the OCCAM who is a medical oncologist. Table I summarizes the outcomes of the review of these cases. Further information and documentation was requested to clarify the clinical course of some patients. Four cases were found to have confirmed pathological diagnoses of cancer and adequate pre- and posttreatment medical imaging studies indicating a tumor response. These cases are described below.
Case No. 1. A 47-year-old man presented to the clinic on November 30, 1994. A previous chest X-ray (November 18, 1994) revealed a well-defined, large mass in the left upper mediastinum with well-expanded lung fields and an area of consolidation in the left upper lobe (Fig. 1A). A computed tomography (CT) scan (Fig. 1B) performed on Nov 19, 1994 showed an 8.0x6.4 cm well-defined, large, soft tissue mass of homogeneous density in the left upper mediastinum. A CT guided fine need aspiration (FNA) of the superior mediastinal mass was performed on November 24, 1994 and cytological smears revealed clusters of cells having moderate pleomorphism, individual cells with homogeneous nuclei chromatin, inconspicuous nucleolus and cytoplasm with

70 BANERJI et al: CANCER THERAPY BY HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINE
Table I. Four cases of the PB Homoeopathic Research Foundation approved by the NCI Best Case Series Program.


Case No. Gender/age (y) First clinic visit Disease type Treatment NCI BCS Programreview assessment


  1. Male/47 11/30/94 Malignant non-small Kali Carbonicum Evaluable
    cell lung carcinoma 200c 2 drops thrice
    in a week and Ferrum
    Phosphoricum
    3x2 tablets
    twice daily
  2. Female/77 12/27/94 Small cell lung Kali Carbonicum Evaluable
    carcinoma 200c a dose of 2 drops,
    thrice in a week and
    Ferrum Phosphoricum
    3x2 tablets twice daily
  3. Male/75 12/16/96 Moderately Condurango 30c Evaluable
    differentiated a dose of 2 drops,
    squamous cell twice daily
    oesophageal
    carcinoma
  4. Female/75 9/7/95 Squamous cell Condurango 30c Evaluable
    oesophageal a dose of 2 drops,
    carcinoma twice daily

vacuolations supporting the diagnosis of a malignant tumor (Fig. 1C). The NCI Laboratory of Pathology review confirmed the malignancy and categorized it as an adenocarcinoma. According to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging (2002), the TNM classification was T2NXM0 or Stage III cancer. Treatment. The patient received Kali Carbonicum 200c, a dose of 2 drops, 3 times a week and Ferrum Phosphoricum 3x, 2 tablets twice daily beginning on November 30, 1994 and the treatment continued up to July, 1996. No adverse effects of the therapy were noted. He did not receive conventional cancer therapy.
Follow-up. After 2 months of treatment, the patient gradually became asymptomatic. On January 31, 1995 a chest X-ray revealed considerable shrinkage of the mediastinal mass compared with the initial study. Progressive shrinkage was demonstrated on additional X-rays performed on July 5, 1995 and January 9, 1996 (Fig. 1D). On January 7, 1999, a chest X-ray documented a complete resolution of the mediastinal tumor (Fig. 2E). The patient returned to the clinic every 6 months for follow-up and no reoccurrence has been noted. The date of the last follow-up was September 11, 2006. Case No. 2. A 77-year-old woman presented to the clinic on September 12, 1994. A chest X-ray performed on December 27, 1994 revealed a wedge shape right upper lobar infiltrate with sharp linear margins. Interstitial markings were prominent in the right lung field. Results of a follow-up chest X-ray on January 9, 1995 demonstrated an unchanged peripheral wedge shaped right upper lobe infiltrate that had an inflammatory appearance. Findings on a January 9, 1995 chest CT scan were initially reported as a dense irregular, lobulated mass with shaggy margins in the posterior segment of the right upper lobe and lateral segment of the right middle lobe from the base to the periphery suggestive of bronchogenic carcinoma. The NIH DRD review did not describe a definitive mass, although a peripheral wedge shaped defect with air bronchograms was noted. A CT-guide FNA of this region of the right lung was performed on January 9, 1995 and the initial pathology report described a small cell type carcinoma of the lung. The NCI Laboratory of Pathology review later reclassified this as an adenocarcinoma. According to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging (2002), the TNM classification was T2NxM0 or Stage II cancer. Treatment. The patient received Kali Carbonicum 200c, a dose of 2 drops, 3 times a week and Ferrum Phosphoricum 3x, 2 tablets twice daily beginning on January 12, 1995 and treatment continued up to September 1995. No adverse effects of the therapy were noted. The patient did not receive conventional cancer therapy.
Follow-up. After treatment, the patient became asymptomatic after two months. A chest X-ray performed on March 24, 1995 revealed a complete resolution of the consolidation in the right mid zone, residual streaky opacity of fibrosis, adjacent ONCOLOGY REPORTS 20: 69-74, 2008 71 Figure 1. Effect of homoeopathic remedies on lung cancer regression. (A) Chest X-ray exhibits a growth of malignant non-small cell lung carcinoma in the left lung of a 47-year-old male patient. (B) A CT-scan of the chest of the same patient. (C) Histopathology slide of malignant non-small cell lung carcinoma samples collected by FNA from the same patient. (D and E) Chest X-rays show complete regression of tumor growth. Arrow indicates the tumor.
pleural thickening and prominent bronchovascular markings. An NIH DRD review of this film noted the continued presence of a small wedge shaped lesion consistent with resolving pneumonia. A chest X-ray performed on December 19, 1998 showed residual fibrotic scarring in the right upper lobe though without active disease. The patient returned to the clinic every 6 months for follow-up examinations and thus far no re-occurrence has been seen. The date of the last follow-up was on December 24, 2003.
Case No. 3. A 75-year-old man presented to the clinic with difficulty swallowing, dyspepsia and eructation for the preceding 2 months. On October 17, 1996 an oesophagogram (Fig. 2A) showed a large proximal filling defect within the dilated portion of the oesophagus representing a tumor or another obstruction when reviewed by the NIH/DRD. An endoscopy performed on November 29, 1996, confirmed a tumor with the proximal end 22 cm into the oesophagus extending to the gastroesophageal junction and causing luminal narrowing. An oesophageal biopsy was performed on December 6, 1996 and the initial report described moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (Fig. 2B). The NCI Laboratory of Pathology review of this specimen confirmed the diagnosis of a malignancy, though reclassified it as an adenocarcinoma. According to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging (2002), the TNM classification was as T (>10 cm long) N0M0 or Stage IV disease. Treatment. This patient received Condurango 30c, a dose of 2 drops, twice daily beginning on December 16, 1996 and the treatment continued up to April, 1998. No adverse effects of the therapy were noted. He did not receive conventional cancer therapy.
Follow up. An oesophagogram was performed on October 17, 1996 which showed a large irregular filling defect in the upper half of the oesophagus suggestive of a malignant growth. A repeat study dated July 12, 1997 noted a considerable 72 BANERJI et al: CANCER THERAPY BY HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINE Figure 2. Effect of homoeopathic remedies on oesophageal cancer regression. (A) Barium meal-X-ray exhibits a large proximal filling defect with the dilated portion of the oesophagus of a 75-year-old male patient representing a tumor. (B) A histopathology slide of oesophageal carcinoma samples collected by endoscopy from the same patient. (C) Barium meal-X-ray exhibits a complete regression of the disease. Arrow indicates the tumor.
improvement in the patency of the oesophagus compared to the previous oesophagogram dated 17 October, 1996. The NIH DRD review of the films from October 17, 1996 and July 12, 1997 studies noted a persistent though smaller defect in the proximal oesophagus at the site of the previously identified mass with a reduction in the degree of obstruction and return to a normal diameter of the distal oesophagus (Fig. 2C). The patient gradually became asymptomatic and is currently in good health, with no symptoms of dysphagia since July, 1997. The last date of follow-up was in December 1998. Case No. 4. A 75-year-old woman presented to the clinic with difficulty swallowing and regurgitation of food and fluids while eating for the preceding 3 months. A barium oesophagogram on August 19, 1995 was attempted but not completed due to obstruction. X-ray results showed a gross filling defect at the mid and lower third of the oesophagus with complete obstruction at the lower third of the oesophagus. The NIH DRD review of this film confirmed the presence of a high grade obstruction in the upper oesophagus with an abrupt cut off of the barium column. To permit enteral feedings, the patient underwent a jejunostomy on August 21, 1995. An endoscopic oesophageal biopsy was performed on August 28, 1995. The original pathological report described features suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma. The NCI Laboratory of Pathology review of the specimen revealed adenocarcinoma. Due to the patient's poor general condition, no attempt was made at oesophageal dilatation. According to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging (2002), the TNM classification was T2NxM1 or Stage IIIb possibly Stage IV cancer.
Treatment. The patient received Condurango 30c, 2 drops, twice daily beginning on September 7, 1995 and the treatment continued up to May, 1996. No adverse effects of the therapy were noted. She did not receive conventional cancer therapy. Follow-up. A barium oesophagogram X-ray was performed on October 12, 1995. The initial report indicated that the contrast media passed freely through the oesophagus with a narrowing at the cardiac end. A curling oesophagus with a diverticula formation was also noted. The NIH DRD review of the film revealed a patent oesophagus with secondary and tertiary contractions suggesting dysmotility though without evidence of a mass or mucosa irregularity. However, the NIH radiologist recommended that an annular oesophageal cancer could be present but not visible given the limited nature of the study (2 views only). The patient gradually became asymptomatic since November 1995 with improvement in the dysphagia. The jejunostomy tube was removed on October 12, 1995. The patient returned to the clinic every 6 months for follow-up examinations and no reoccurrence has been seen. The last date of follow-up was January 1999.

Discussion
Classical homoeopathy uses an extensive patient interview to elicit symptoms and personal characteristics to determine the most appropriate single homoeopathic preparation for that patient (3). The use of a specific homoeopathic medicine for the treatment of a single allopathic diagnosis has been studied in several clinical trials aimed at assessing the validity of these approaches in clinical practice (1,8-11). However, the use of homoeopathic regimens in the treatment of cancer is less well studied (12). Well-designed prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical trials critically evaluating the efficacy of homeopathic therapy for the treatment of cancer have not been performed. Published results from two, well-controlled trials provide the rationale for further investigation of certain homoeopathic preparations in combination with standard therapy for the management of some side effects of conventional cancer therapy (13,14).
Another randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial performed in Italy included 66 patients with breast cancer who were undergoing chest wall radiotherapy (15). Patients received homoeopathically-prepared belladonna or placebo to determine the effects of therapy on radio-dermatitis. There was a non-significant trend in favour of the belladonna preparation during radiotherapy as well as a significant benefit during the post-radiotherapy recovery period. However the use of a small number of patients as well as a non-validated scale to measure radio-dermatitis weakened the findings of this study. Several case reports of homoeopathic treatments of cancer have also been published (12). Other homoeopathic physicians have published cases describing their experiences in the treatment of cancer patients (6,7,16). Due to the lack of prospective research or rigorously documented and reported retrospective case studies of the use of so-called 'alternative therapies' for cancer treatment, the NCI developed a program to systematically evaluate retrospective case report data and identify interventions for which there is sufficient evidence to justify NCI-initiated prospective research. The four major criteria for an optimal case submission to this program are: a) definitive diagnosis of cancer at the time the patient received the therapy in question; b) documentation of disease response; c) absence of confounders such as concurrent or recent conventional anticancer therapy; and d) documented treatment history.
This report represents the first detailed description of the results of a review of cases by the NCI. The therapies received by these patients included Kali Carbonicum and Ferrum Phosphoricum for lung cancer and Condurango for oesophageal cancer. Homoeopathic remedies are derived from a variety of substances from plants, minerals and animals. Dilutions of soluble substances are succussed serially to form a mother tincture from which the desired potency is achieved. One part of the mother tincture is mixed with 99 parts of 87% alcohol and succussed to achieve 1C potency in the centesimal scale (1:100). Decimal potencies (1 to 10 or X potencies) are often formed and are weaker than centesimal potencies (17). The homoeopathic preparations used in these cases are not commonly used in classical homoeopathic practice for the treatment of patients with lung cancer.
Characteristically, patients in this clinic receive other homoeopathic prescriptions for the management of specific symptoms (e.g. pain, haemoptysis, nausea and vomiting). Unlike other centres in India, the frequency of similar positive outcomes by patients with cancer at this centre in India is clear. Four case studies out of 12 were initially presented to the NCI BCS Program in 1999 and underwent independent ONCOLOGY REPORTS 20: 69-74, 2008 73 confirmation of the diagnosis and radiographic response. The entire case series was also reviewed and commented on by the Cancer Advisory Panel for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Based on the positive outcomes seen in these case studies, several questions have arisen that have warranted further study. Notably, could the results be replicated and if so what is their frequency? Furthermore, how could a workable protocol be developed to study the use of this approach to homoeopathic management in a prospective clinical trial of a specific type and stage of cancer? In addition, several variables needed to be addressed to ensure validity and reliability of future findings. These areas include providing consistent quality of the pathology and imaging, improvement of patient follow-up, which was inconsistent because of travel issues and incorporating a formal computerized data management system. The greatest barrier to addressing these issues is the significant financial support required due to the extreme poverty in the area where the clinic operates.
In conclusion, this report describes the process and outcome of a selected case series review via the NCI BCS Program. The results of the review were deemed to be sufficient to warrant an NCI-initiated prospective research follow-up in the form of an observational study. A protocol for the conduct of this study has been approved by the NCI Special Studies institutional review board and an application for approval of this project has been submitted to the Indian Council for Medical Research.
Acknowledgements We thank Drs Jeffrey D. White, Peter Choyke and Paul Duray, for reviewing the X-rays, CT-scan plates and histopathological slides, respectively, on behalf of the NCI. We would also like to acknowledge the contributions of Dr Satadal Das, in review of the histopathological slides at the PBHRF and Gobinda Chandra Das, for help in preparing the manuscript. We dedicate this study to the memory of Ms. Krishna Banerji.
References

  1. Bark T and Dwyer D: Homeopathy. In: Text Book of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Yuan CS and Bieber EJ. The Parthenon Publishing Group, Boca Raton, FL, pp65-79, 2003.
  2. Carlston M: Homeopathy today. In: Classical Homeopathy. Carlston M and Micozzi MS. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp33-45, 2003.
  3. Gordon D: Homeopathic principles in patient care. In: Classical Homeopathy. Carlston M and Micozzi MS. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp103-119, 2003.
  4. Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL, Appel S, Wilkey S, van Rompay M and Kessler RC: Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990-1997: results of a follow-up national survey. JAMA 280: 1569-1575, 1998.
  5. Hawkins MJ and Friedman MA: National Cancer Institute's evaluation of unconventional cancer treatments. J Natl Cancer Inst 84: 1699-1702, 1992.
  6. Lee CO: Homeopathy in cancer care: Part II-Continuing the practice of 'like curing like'. Clin J Oncol Nurs 8: 327-330, 2004.
  7. Lee CO: Translational research in cancer complementary and alternative medicine: the National Cancer Institute's Best Case Series Program. Clin J Oncol Nurs 8: 212-214, 2004.
  8. Weiner DK and Ernst E: Complementary and alternative approaches to the treatment of persistent musculoskeletal pain. Clin J Pain 20: 244-255, 2004.
  9. McCarney RW, Lasserson TJ, Linde K and Brinkhaus B: An overview of two Cochrane systematic reviews of complementary treatments for chronic asthma: acupuncture and homeopathy. Respir Med 98: 687-696, 2004.
  10. McCarney RW, Linde K and Lasserson TJ: Homeopathy for chronic asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD000353, 2004.
  11. Jacobs J, Jonas WB, Jimenez-Perez M and Crothers D: Homeopathy for childhood diarrhea: combined results and metaanalysis from three randomized, controlled clinical trials. Pediatr Infect Dis J 22: 229-234, 2003.
  12. Paterson IC: Homeopathy: what is it and is it of value in the care of patients with cancer? Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 14: 250-253, 2002.
  13. Oberbaum M, Yaniv I, Ben-Gal Y, Stein J, Ben-Zvi N, Freedman LS and Branski D: A randomized, controlled clinical trial of the homeopathic medication TRAUMEEL S in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis in children undergoing stem cell transplantation. Cancer 92: 684-690, 2001.
  14. Yakir M, Kreitler S, Brzezinski A, Vithoulkas G, Oberbaum M and Bentwich Z: Effects of homeopathic treatment in women with premenstrual syndrome: a pilot study. Br Homeopath J 90: 148-153, 2001.
  15. Balzarini A, Felisi E, Martini A and De CF: Efficacy of homeopathic treatment of skin reactions during radiotherapy for breast cancer: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial. Br Homeopath J 89: 8-12, 2000.
  16. Ramakrishnan AU and Coulter C: A Homeopathic approach to cancer, St. Louis, MO, Quality Medical Publishing Inc., 2001.
  17. Yasgur J: Homeopathy Dictionary, Greenville, PA, Van Hoy Publishers, 1998. 74 BANERJI et al: CANCER THERAPY BY HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINE

癌治療に対する代替アプローチ プラサンタ・バナジー(父)&プラティップ・バナジー(息子) (インド人ホメオパス)
参考文献1:Cancer patients treated with the Banerji protocols
utilising homoeopathic medicine: A Best Case Series
Program of the National Cancer Institute USA

参考文献2:Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer

参考文献3:Cytotoxic effects of ultra-diluted remedies on breast cancer cells

参考文献4:All Evidence is Equal, but Some Evidence is More Equal than Others: Can Logic Prevail over Emotion in the Homeopathy Debate?

⑰ホメオパシーの研究ロバート・メドハースト(オーストラリア)

INDEX(内容)

  • Human studies  (人間の研究 エビデンス:145研究)
  • Animal studies (動物の研究 エビデンス:50 研究)
  • Plant studies (植物の研究 エビデンス:8 研究)
  • In-Vitro Studies (分子レベル研究 エビデンス:23研究)
  • The Use of Homeopathy (※世界各国でホメオパシー使用状況詳細)
  • Arguments Against Homeopathy (ホメオパシーに対する議論)
  • Human Clinical Trial Meta-analyses (8)
  • Individual Human Clinical Trials ・Cohort Studies (5)
  • Veterinary Studies(5)
  • Does Homeopathy Work?
  • References (参考文献リスト)

Human studies

  1. Albertini H, Goldberg W, Sanguy B, Toulza CL. Homeopathic treatment of dental neuralgia by Arnica and Hypericum. Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy, 1985, 3, 126-129. Carried out at the Faculty of Medicine of Marseilles, this placebo controlled study was designed to determine the effectiveness of Arnica 7C and Hypericum 15C for people suffering from dental neuralgia. 60 people received either 4 pilules of Arnica alternated with 4 pilules of Hypericum every 4 hours or placebo administered in the same way. Pain levels were assessed over 3 days from the beginning of the trial. From this assessment it was found that 12 of the 30 people who received the placebo had a positive response to this intervention, and 23 of the 30 people given the homeopathic medicines responded positively to these.
  2. Alibeu JP, Jobert J. Aconite in Post-Operative Pain and Agitation in Children, Pediatrie, 1990, 45, 7-8, 465-6. In this double blind placebo controlled trial, 50 children suffering from post-operative pain and agitation were given either Aconite or placebo. The effects of Aconite were significantly better than placebo
  3. Ammerschlager H., Klein P., Weiser M., Oberbaum M. Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract - comparison of a homeopathic complex remedy with xylometazoline. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005, Feb, 12, 1,:24-31. In a multi-centre, controlled, cohort study, 739 people suffering from rhinitis or sinusitis were given either xylometazoline (a drug commonly used for nasal congestion, sinusitis and hay fever) or a homeopathic combination. Both forms of therapy provided similarly effective results.
  4. Baars EW, De Bruin A. The effect of Gencydo injections on hayfever symptoms: a therapeutic causality report. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct, 11, 5, 863-9. In this study, 13 Dutch medical practitioners submitted patients (who between them had a mean history of hayfever of 9 years), for therapy involving injections of a combination homeopathic product. All but 1 patient were given the medication before the onset of the hayfever season and all were given it during the hayfever season. Of these 13, during the course of the trial 9 people found no increase in nasal and non-nasal hayfever symptoms when the hayfever season began or during it and only 1 of the 13 felt compelled to use conventional hayfever medication.
  5. Baduluci S, Chirulescu Z, Chirila P, Rosca A. Zinc: Immunoglobin Relationship in Patients with Cirrhosis of the Liver Before and After treatment with Zincum metallicum 5C. International Research Group on Very Low Dose and High Dilution Effects, 1993 Giri Meeting, British Homoeopathic Journal, April, 1994, 83, 84-100. 10 people suffering from Zinc deficiency as determined by atomic absorption spectrophotemetry were treated with Zincum metallicum 5C. Analysis following this treatment showed a substantial improvement in zinc levels.
  6. Banerjee A, Chakrabarty SB, Karmakar SR, Chakrabarty A, Biswas SJ, Haque S, Das D, Paul S, Mandal B, Naoual B, Belon P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Can Homeopathy bring additional benefits to Thalassemic Patients on Hydroxyurea Therapy? Encouraging Results of a Preliminary Study. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2010 March;
  7. (1): 129-136. In this observational study, 38 people suffering from thalassaemia who were taking hydroxyurea, were allowed to continue their use of hydroxyurea but were given one of several homeopathic medicines. The effects of this additional treatment were compared to the outcomes of another 38 people suffering from thalassaemia who used hydroxyurea alone, assessed immediately before and at 3 months after starting the homeopathic treatment. Of a range of haematological and clinical parameters, those people using the combined treatment showed an increase in levels of foetal haemoglobin over those on hydroxyurea alone, along with a reduction in serum ferritin. Where splenomegaly was present, a significant reduction in this was noted in those on the combined therapy and this group also noted an improvement in general health with a longer period allowed between blood transfusions. 7. Barnes J., Resch K-L., Ernst E. Homoeopathy for Post-Operative Ileus: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 1997, Dec, 25, 4, 628- 633. 7 separate trials examining the effects of homoeopathic treatment for post-operative ileus after abdominal or gynaecological surgery when compared with placebo, specifically, for the time to first flatus after surgery. Subsequent analysis showed that homoeopathy provided superior results to placebo.
  8. Bell IR, Lewis DA, Brooks AJ, Schwartz GE, Lewis SE, Walsh BT, Baldwin CM. Improved clinical status in fibromyalgia patients treated with individualized homeopathic remedies versus placebo. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004 May;43(5):577-82. 53 people suffering from fibromyalgia took part in this trial, comparing individualised homoeopathic treatment to placebo. The levels of tender points and tender point pain as well as quality of life, mood and general health were assessed by the practitioners and subjects involved in the trial. 3 months after commencing treatment, all parameters were found to be improved by the use of homoeopathy when compared to placebo.
  9. Belon P, Banerjee P, Choudhury SC, Banerjee A, Biswas SJ, et al. Can administration of potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum album, alter antinuclear antibody (ANA) titre in people living in high-risk arsenic contaminated areas? I. A correlation with certain hematological parameters. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Mar; 3 (1):99-107. To investigate whether or not potentised Arsenicum album has an effect on arsenic-induced elevations of antinuclear antibody (ANA), selected inhabitants of arsenic affected villages in India's West Bengal were randomly assigned to receive either Arsenicum album or placebo. After 2 months of administration, it was found that not only did the remedy provide superior results in reducing the ANA titre, it also caused a correction of arsenic-induced haematological changes such as total count of red blood cells and white blood cells, packed cell volume, haemoglobin content, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and blood sugar level.
  10. Belon P, Banerjee A, Karmakar SR, et al. Homeopathic remedy for arsenic toxicity? Evidence-based findings from a randomized placebo-controlled double blind human trial. Sci Total Environ. 2007 Jul 10. This was a pilot study carried out on 25 people from an Indian village where arsenic contamination was endemic and 18 people from another Indian village without arsenic contamination. These people were randomly assigned to receive either Arsenicum album 30C or a succussed placebo control. After 2 months on either active medicine or placebo, these people had their blood and urine assessed for arsenic as well as several widely accepted toxicity biomarkers and pathological parameters related to arsenic toxicity. The use of Arsenicum album 30C had a beneficial effect on these biomarkers. It was also found to improve the appetite and general health of those people who previously exhibited signs and symptoms of arsenic toxicity.
  11. Berrebi A, Parant O, Ferval F, Thene M, Ayoubi JM, Connan L, Belon P. Treatment of Pain due to Unwanted Lactation with a Homeopathic Preparation given in the Immediate Post-Partum Period. Gynecology, Obstetrics and Biological Reproduction, 2001, June, 30, 4, 353-7. 71 post- parturient women who were unwilling or unable to breast feed were divided into 2 groups, one being given a placebo and the other group being given a mixture of Apis 9C and Bryonia 9C, to determine the effects of either on lactation pain. A significant improvement was noted in the group using the mixture, when compared to those in the placebo group.
  12. Bignamini M, Saruggia M, Sansonetti G. Homeopathic Treatment of Anal Fissures using Nitricum acidum Berlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, 1, 4/5, 286-287, December 1991. Patients using Nitricum acidum 9C once daily in a double blind placebo controlled trial found subjective relief with the medicine over the placebo.
  13. Bornhoft G, Wolf U, Ammon K, et al. Effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of homeopathy in general practice - summarized health technology assessment. Forsch Komplementarmed. 2006;13 Suppl 2:19-29. This was an effectiveness and safety study on homeopathy carried out for the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health. Using Internet-based resources, manual search and contact with experts, and assessed according to internal and external validity criteria, investigators found that the trend was in favour of a therapeutic benefit from homeopathic intervention. In addition, it was stated by the authors of the study that, "…effectiveness of homeopathy can be supported by clinical evidence and professional and adequate application be regarded as safe. "
  14. Brigo B, Serpelloni G, Homoeopathic Treatment of Migraine Berlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, 1, 2, March, 1991, 98-106. In this randomised, placebo controlled double blind study, 60 people suffering from migraine were treated using constitutional homoeopathy over a period of 4 months. Those patients in the control group experienced a reduction in migraine frequency from 9.9 attacks per month to 7.9 per month, while those in the treatment group reduced their monthly attack rate from 10 to between 1.8 and 3 per month.
  15. Cairo J, Elliot BE, Barnouin J, Fleites P, Araoz A, Morales M, Verdura T, Sanchez M, Serrano C, Alvarez JL, Veillard JJ. Homeopathy in Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy: An Open Clinical Trial. British Homoeopathic Journal, 2001, 90, 150-157. In this uncontrolled trial, 15 people suffering from optic endemic neuropathy (group 1) and 16 people suffering from peripheral epidemic neuropathy (group 2) were given homeopathic Carbon sulph and homeopathic Tabacum for 30 days. The subjects were assessed for improvement in neurologic and ophthalmologic tests on commencement and again at 90 days after commencement of the trial. Those in group 1 experienced an averaged improvement of 73% and group 2 of 12.5%.
  16. Campistranous- Lavout JL., et al. Hypertension Trial. Boletin Mexicano, 1999, 32, 42- 47. 68 people suffering from mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled in a double-blind randomised clinical trial comparing individualised homoeopathic therapy with placebo. Successful results were obtained with 82% of those using homoeopathy compared with 57% of those using placebo.
  17. Castellsague API, Sturza CM. Retrospective Study in Asthma, Revista Homeopatica AMBH, 1998, 37, 5-21. In this multi-centre retrospective (uncontrolled) analysis, 196 people were treated for asthma with homoeopathy. Of the 196, 54 were claimed to have been cured and improvement was seen in a further 117.
  18. Cavalcanti AM, Rocha LM, Carillo R Jr, Lima LU, Lugon JR. Effects of homeopathic treatment on pruritus of haemodialysis patients: a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Homeopathy. 2003 Oct;92(4):177-81. Pruritis, commonly experienced by those undergoing haemodialysis, was treated in 20 subjects under double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial conditions comparing individualised homoeopathic treatment to placebo. Assessments were made at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days treatment, and after collating the results, researchers found that homoeopathic management reduced pruritis by 49%. The majority of the reduction in pruritis had occurred by day 30.
  19. Chapman EH, Weintraub RJ, Milburn MA, Pirozzo TO, Woo E. Homoeopathic Treatment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Head Trauma and Rehabilitation, 14, 6, December 1999, 521-42. In a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial involving 60 subjects and a 4 month follow-up period, homoeopathy provided significant improvement in parameters using measures such as "Difficulty with Situations", "Symptoms Rating Scale" and a "Participation in Daily Activities" scale.
  20. Chapman EH. Homeopathic treatment of patients with persistent mild traumatic brain injury. British Homeopathic Journal, 2000, 89, Suppl 1,S60. In a randomised, placebo-controlled trial, 50 people with persistent mild traumatic brain injury were treated either with their constitutional homeopathic remedy or placebo. The homeopathic treatment provided superior results to those from the placebo control.
  21. Clark J, Percivall AA. Preliminary Investigation into the Effectiveness of the Homoeopathic Remedy, Ruta graveolens, in the Treatment of Pain in Plantar Fasciitis. British Journal of Podiatry, 2000, 3, 3, 81- 85. In a randomised double-blind trial, 14 people suffering from plantar fasciitis were given Ruta graveleons 30C or placebo. Those using the Ruta reported a greater level of pain relief than those using placebo.
  22. Clover A, Ratsey D. Homoepathic Treatment of Hot Flushes. British Homoeopathic Journal, 2002, 91, 75-79. Researchers at the Tunbridge Wells Homeopathic Hospital in the UK enrolled 31 female outpatients who had complained of menopausal flushes in this trial. They were treated using individualised homeopathic management and after their initial consultation and at least one follow-up, patients completed their own self-assessment rating of the treatment. 79% of the women enrolled in the study reported a reduction in both the severity and frequency of hot flushes as a result of the treatment.
  23. Colin P. Homeopathy and respiratory allergies: a series of 147 cases. Homeopathy. 2006 Apr;95 (2):68-72. In this case series, 147 consecutive patients suffering from respiratory allergy who attended a private homeopathic clinic were assessed for their response to constitutional homeopathic treatment. Of these patients, 105 were sufferers of ear, nose and throat allergies. Only 2 of these patients failed to respond to treatment and none experienced an exacerbation of symptoms. The other 42 patients were sufferers of pulmonary allergies, all except 5 of whom experienced relief, with 2 of these experiencing an exacerbation of symptoms.
  24. Davidson JRT, Morrison RM, Shore J, Davidson RT, Bedayn G. Homeopathic Treatment of Depression and Anxiety. Alternative Therapies, 3, 1, January 1997, 46-49. In this trial, 12 subjects suffering from major depression, social phobia or panic disorder, were treated for 7 to 80 weeks with individually prescribed homoeopathic remedies and assessed on a clinical global improvement scale (CGIS) or self-rated SCL-90 scale and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS). Subjects were given homoeopathic treatment either because they asked for it directly or because conventional treatment had been unsuccessful. The overall response rates for homoeopathy were 58% on the CGIS and 50% on the SCL-90 and SPS.
  25. Derasse M, Klein P, Weiser M. The effects of a complex homeopathic medicine compared with acetaminophen in the symptomatic treatment of acute febrile infections in children: an observational study. Explore (NY). 2005 Jan;1(1):33-9. In this non-randomised observational study carried out in 38 Belgian clinics, 198 children suffering from acute febrile infections were assessed for their response to either acetaminophen or a combination of homeopathic medicines. The children had their infection symptoms, which included fever, cramps, disturbed sleep, crying, and difficulties eating or drinking, assessed and graded for a response to their respective medicines. After taking the results from all variables into account, it was found that the homeopathic combination was as effective as acetaminophen. The tolerance to medicines was also assessed as part of this trial and in this respect it was found that the homeopathic combination was superior to the acetaminophen.
  26. Dorfman P, Lassere NM, Tetau M, Homoeopathic Medicines in Pregnancy and Labor, Cahiers de Biotherapie, 94, April 1987, 77-81. In this randomised double blind trial involving 93 women, a combination of homeopathic Caulophyllum, Actea racemosa, Arnica, Pulsatilla and Gelsemium, all in 5C potency, was used to determine its effect on the length of labor and complication rates. The medicine was used from the beginning of the ninth month of pregnancy, and reduced the average time of labor to 5.1 hours, in comparison to the placebo, the use of which was associated with an average labor time of 8.5 hours. The rate of complications for those using the homoeopathic combination was 11.3% while the complication rate under placebo was 40%.
  27. Eid P, Felisi E, Sideri M; Applicability of Homoeopathic Caulophyllum thalictroides during labour. British Homoeopathic Journal, October, 1993, 82, 245-248. 22 women experiencing their first pregnancies were given homoeopathic Caulophyllum and their post-treatment deliveries compared to 34 labours retrospectively selected on the criteria used to select the test subjects. On analysis it was found that the women who were given the homoeopathic remedy had a reduction of the duration of labour by an average of 90 minutes.
  28. Ernst E, Saradeth T, Resch KL, Complementary Treatment of Varicose Veins.. Phebology, 1990, 5, 157-163. Over a period of 24 days, the effects of a homoeopathic complex preparation and placebo on varicose veins were tested in a double-blind trial of 61 people suffering from this condition. The homoeopathic complex produced an averaged 44% improvement in the condition while those given the placebo experienced an averaged worsening of the disorder.
  29. Ferley JP, Zmirou D, D'Adhemar D, Balducci F. A Controlled Evaluation of a Homoeopathic Preparation in the Treatment of Influenza-like Syndrome..Br J Clin Pharmacol, 1989, Mar, 27, 3, 329-335. 487 people suffering from influenza were assigned to either Oscillococcinum (Anas barb.) 200CK or placebo, twice daily for 5 days. Significant results were achieved with the medicine over the placebo in all areas measured. This trial was repeated in 1998 (Papp R, Schuback G, Beck E, Burkard G, Bengel J, Lehrl S, Belon P. Oscillococcinum in Patients with Influenza-like Syndromes. British Homeopathic Journal, April 1998, 87, pp69-76) with 372 people with the same results.
  30. Fisher P., Greenwood A, Huskisson EC, Turner P and Belon P. Effect of Homoeopathic Treatment on Fibrositis. British Medical Journal, 5 August, 1989, 299, 365-366. Patients using Rhus tox 6C three times daily in a double blind placebo controlled crossover trial found significant relief with the medicine over the placebo.
  31. Fisher P. An Experimental Double-blind Clinical Trial method in Homoeopathy- Use of a Limited Range of Remedies to Treat Fibrositis. British Homoeopathic Journal, 1986, July, 75, 3, 142-7. 24 subjects suffering from fibrositis were treated for the condition for 3 months with Arnica, Bryonia or Rhus tox, depending upon the similarity between the individuals' symptoms and the clinical picture for the remedy. Using scores for pain, number of tender spots, and sleep quality to determine the response to the therapy, these remedies produced a statistically significant improvement, but only when the remedy was well indicated.
  32. Frass M, Linkesch M, Banyai S, et al. Adjunctive homeopathic treatment in patients with severe sepsis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in an intensive care unit. Homeopathy. 2005 Apr; 94, 2, 75-80. In this study, 70 people admitted to an intensive care unit suffering from severe sepsis were treated either with individualised homeopathic treatment or placebo. On reviewing the signs of sepsis, organ failures, need for mechanical ventilation and other parameters at 180 days after beginning treatment, 76% of the patients using homeopathy met survival criteria versus 50% of those on placebo.
  33. Frass M, Dielacher C, Linkesch M, et al. Influence of potassium dichromate on tracheal secretions in critically ill patients. Chest. 2005 Mar;127(3):936-41. Stringy tracheal secretions often complicate or even prevent extubation of people breathing with continuous positive airway pressure. This issue provoked the development of a study involving 50 people breathing spontaneously with continuous positive airway pressure who were randomly assigned to receive either 5 globules twice daily of Kali bic 30C or the same dose and frequency of placebo globules. The study results were assessed using the amount of tracheal secretions from day 2 of the study, the amount of time spent by the subjects in the ICU in which they were staying and the time until successful extubation. After the results were assessed, it was found that those who'd been given the Kali bic produced less tracheal secretions than those on placebo, their stay in the ICU was shorter than those on placebo as was their time to successful extubation.
  34. Frei H, Thurneysen A. Treatment for Hyperactive Children: Homeopathy and Methylphenidate Compared in a Family Setting. British Homoeopathic Journal, 2001, 90, 183-188. 114 children attending a paediatric practice where conventional and homeopathic medicines were used, and who were previously diagnosed with ADHD, were given individualised homoeopathic medicines (increasing potencies of the most similar LM remedy). On a parent assessed basis (confirmed by the clinician), if a minimum 50% improvement was not noted within a certain period of time they were placed on Methylphenidate. 75% of the children responded to homoeopathy and 22% required Methylphenidate. 3% of patients did not respond to either regime.
  35. Frei H, Thurneysen A. Homeopathy in Acute Otitis Media in Children: Treatment Effect or Spontaneous Resolution? British Homeopathic Journal, 2001, Oct, 90, 4, 180-2. In a study involving 230 children with acute otitis media, homoeopathic treatment was compared with placebo to determine whether homoeopathic treatment provided a faster resolution of symptoms than placebo. After 12 hours, 72% of those using homoeopathy experienced significant relief of symptoms, which was 2.4 times faster than the response to placebo.
  36. Frei H, Everts R, von Ammon K, et al. Homeopathic treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. Eur J Pediatr. 2005 Dec, 164, 12, 758-67. 83 children diagnosed as suffering from ADHD using DSMIV criteria were treated with individually prescribed homeopathic medicines. Using the Connor's Global Index scale it was determined that 63 of these children responded to treatment. These children were then randomised to receive either placebo or homeopathic medicines for 6 weeks and at this point were crossed over to receive placebo if they'd been using the homeopathics or visa versa. At the end of this period it was found that homeopathic therapy provided significantly better results than placebo.
  37. Frenkel M, Hermoni D. Effects of Homeopathic Intervention on Medication Consumption in Atopic and Allergic Disorders. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 2002, Jan-Feb, 8, 1, 76-9. In a study carried out at the Technicon-Israel Institute in Haifa, Israel, 48 patients were treated for allergic disorders with both homoeopathic and conventional medicines, and monitored for their level of use of the conventional medicines. Over the 3 month monitoring period, 56% of patients reduced their conventional medication use by an average of 60%.
  38. Friese KH, Kruse S, Ludtke R, Moeller H. The Homoeopathic Treatment of Otitis Media in Children. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 35, 7, 1997, 96-301. In this trial, 131 children suffering from medically diagnosed otitis media were split into two groups. 28 were treated by a team of four ear, nose and throat practitioners using singly or in combination, nasal drops, antibiotics, secretolytics or antipyretics (Group B). 103 children were treated by one homoeopath using single homoeopathic remedies (Group A). The average duration of pain for Group A was 2 days, as opposed to 3 days for Group B. 70.7% of the Group A children were free of recurrences within the first year of treatment and 29% had a maximum of 3 recurrences while in Group B, 56.5% were free of recurrences within the first year of treatment and 43.5% had a maximum of 6 recurrences.
  39. Friese KH, Zabalotnyi DI. Homeopathy in acute rhinosinusitis : A double-blind, placebo controlled study shows the efficiency and tolerability of a homeopathic combination remedy. HNO (Organ of the Deutsche Gesellschaft der Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenarzte) 2006 December, 19. Using a randomized, double-blind study method, 144 people with acute rhinosinusitis were treated with a either a combination of homeopathic remedies (Group A) or placebo (Group B) and assessed at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of treatment using a 5 point sinusitis symptom score (the worst score being 20). After analysing the results it was found that those in Group A experienced a drop in symptom scores from 12.1+/-1.6 to 5.9+/-2.0 points after 7 days. Those in Group B found a decrease from 11.7+/-1.6 to 11.0+/-2.9 points (p→0.0001). The final results showed that the homeopathic combination resulted in freedom from complaints in 90.3% of the patients and improvement in a further 8.3%, whereas in the placebo group, the complaints remained unchanged or became worse in 88.9% of the patients.
  40. Gasssinger CA, Wunstel G, Netter PA Controlled Clinical Trial for Testing the Efficacy of the Homoeopathic Drug, Eupatorium perfoliatum, D2 in the Treatment of Common Cold. Arznei Forsch, 1981, 31, 4, 732-736. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either Aspirin or Eupatorium perfoliatum 2X. The latter was found to be as effective as Aspirin in reducing the duration and severity of symptoms.
  41. Gerhard I, Wallis E. Individualised Homeopathic Therapy for Male Infertility, Homeopathy, 2002, 91, 133-144. An observational pilot study investigated the effect of individualised homeopathic therapy for 45 sub-fertile males, with specific reference to sperm count and quality, hormone levels and the general level of health. Sperm count and sperm motility were improved by homeopathy and the improvement was comparable with conventional treatment.
  42. Gibson RG, Gibson SL, MacNeill AD, Gray GH, Dick WC, Buchanan WW. Salicylates and Homoeopathy in Rheumatoid Arthritis. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1978, 6, 5, 391-395. In this study, carried out at the Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital, 41 people suffering from rheumatoid arthritis were treated with enteric coated aspirin and 54 people suffering from the same condition were treated with individualised homeopathic treatment. The results of the two forms of therapy were compared at the end of the trial and it was found that those on homeopathic treatment did considerably better than those on aspirin. In addition, 16 of the 41 people taking aspirin during the trial experienced side effects while those taking homeopathics experienced no side effects.
  43. Gibson RG, Gibson SL. Homoeopathic Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Evaluation by Double Blind Clinical Therapeutic Trial. Br J. Clin. Pharmac. 9, 1980, 453-459. 46 patients using a number of different homoeopathic medicines, prescribed according to homoeopathic principles, were given this medicine or a placebo with their normal anti-arthritic drug. The trial was carried out blind and significant results were achieved with the homeopathic medicine over the placebo in all areas measured.
  44. Gimeno L.Q. Homoeopathic Treatment of Human Papilloma Virus infections previously treated by Other Methods. British Homoeopathic Journal, October 1996, 85, 194-197. In this study, 14 people suffering from recurrent HPV, previously unresponsive to microsurgical procedures, were treated with individualised homeopathy and assessed via cytology prior to treatment, during, and 1 year after commencing treatment. At the final 1year assessment, 11 of the 14 subjects were declared to be cured.
  45. Gmnunder R, Kissling R. The Efficacy of homeopathy in the treatment of chronic low back pain compared to standardized physiotherapy. Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und ihre Grenzgebiete, 2002 Sep-Oct;140, 5, 503-8. In this controlled, randomised, prospective study, 43 people suffering from chronic low back pain were treated for two months either by homeopathy or by standardised physiotherapy. Assessment based on the initial and final clinical investigations, an Oswestry questionnaire, and visual analog scale, found that the most successful method of treatment was homeopathy.
  46. Goldstein MS, Glik D. Use of and satisfaction with homeopathy in a patient population. Altern Ther Health Med. 1998 Mar;4(2):60-5. Carried out in 9 homeopathic clinics in the Los Angeles area, this study was done to determine the success or otherwise of constitutional homeopathic practice as assessed by the people who'd undergone this therapy. The study also looked at the characteristics of the people involved in the study. Information was provided by 77 clients. At 4 months after treatment, 71% of clients reported improvement in their health status. This is contrasted with the fact that 80% of all clients enrolled in this survey had had previous orthodox medical treatment for their condition which they had found unsuccessful. The most common presenting complaints involved the respiratory, gastrointestinal and female reproductive systems and most clients were highly educated but had little knowledge of homeopathy prior to their treatment with it.
  47. Guthlin C., Lange O., Walach H. Measuring the Effects of Acupuncture and Homeopathy in General Practice: An Uncontrolled Prospective Documentation Approach. Biomed Central Public Health, 2004, 4, 1, 6. 5000 people were treated for various ailments using acupuncture, and 900 people were treated using individualised homeopathy, by medical practitioners in a number of clinics throughout Germany. Most of these people had previously been treated using conventional drugs. After treatment, of those being treated using acupuncture, 36% stated that they felt "very much better" and 49% felt, "somewhat better". Of those being treated using homeopathy, 39% stated that they felt "very much better" and 38% felt, "somewhat better".
  48. Haidvogl M, Riley DS, Heger M. Homeopathic and conventional treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints: a comparative study on outcome in the primary care setting. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 Mar 2;7:7 The aim of the authors of this study was to compare the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints with orthodox medical treatment for the same conditions. 1577 clients from 57 clinics from Austria, Germany, The Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, the United Kingdom and the USA were enrolled in the study. They were asked to rate their response to either therapy at 14 days after beginning treatment. 86.9% of those given homeopathic medicines declared that they had had either a complete recovery or major improvement in their symptoms. 86% of those given orthodox medical treatment reported the same thing. Subgroup analysis found that 88.5% of children given homeopathics reported a complete recovery or major improvement in symptoms whereas 84.5% of those given orthodox medical treatment reported similar success. In addition, the onset of improvement within the first 7 days after treatment was significantly faster in those with homeopathic treatment, both in children and adults.
  49. Haila S, Koskinen A, Tenovuo J. Effects of homeopathic treatment on salivary flow rate and subjective symptoms in patients with oral dryness: a randomized trial. Homeopathy. 2005 Jul, 94, 3, 175-81. In this blind, placebo-controlled study, 28 people diagnosed with xerostomia (dryness of the mouth) were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or individually prescribed homeopathic medicines. Assessed using un-stimulated and wax-stimulated salivary flow rates and visual analogue scales at the end of the trial, 26 of those people using homeopathic treatment and none using placebo were found to have had significant relief. Following the assessment of these results those on placebo were switched to homeopathic therapy, after which all experienced relief from their xerostomia.
  50. Harrison RE, Burge TS, et al. Homoeopathic Treatment of Burn Scars. British Homoeopathic Journal, October 1993, 82, 252-254. 4 people suffering from hypertrophic scarring subsequent to burns were treated with homeopathic Graphites for 3 months. All 4 subjects were relieved of these symptoms. No controls were used for comparison.
  51. Hill N, Stam C, Tuinder S, van Haselen RA. A Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial investigating the efficacy of a Homoeopathic After-Bite Gel for Reducing Mosquito bite induced Erythema. Eur J Pharmacol, 1995, 49, 103-108. 68 people were bitten at least 3 times by mosquitoes. One of the bites was treated with an after-bite gel containing homoeopathic ingredients, another of the bites was treated with a placebo gel, and the third bite remained untreated. Erythema associated with the bites was measured before and regularly after treatment at all of the bite sites and the subjects rated the degree of pruritis experienced at the sites. The active gel provided results that were significantly superior to the placebo or no treatment.
  52. Hitzenberger G, Kom A, Dorsci M, Bauer P, Wohlzogen FX. Controlled randomised Double Blind study for the Comparison of the Treatment of Patients with Essential Hypertension with Homoeopathic and Pharmacologically Effective Drugs. Weiner Klinische Wochenschrift (Klinische Wochenschrift), 1982, 94, 24, 665-670. In this randomized double-blind cross-over trial, 10 people suffering from essential hypertension were treated either with standard pharmaceutical products or homeopathic medicines. Pharmaceuticals were found to provide superior blood pressure reducing effects but homeopathic were found to be the better choice for the management of the subjective symptoms of hypertension.
  53. Issing W., Klein P., Weiser M. The homeopathic preparation Vertigoheel versus Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of vertigo in an elderly population: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2005, Feb, 11, 1,155-60. Over a 6 week period, 170 people with an age range of 60- 80 years with atherosclerosis related vertigo were treated for this condition using either a homeopathic combination or herbal gingko biloba. Using a patient-assessed dizzyness questionnaire and practitioner assessment via line walking and other tests as methods of measurement, participants found that the homeopathic combination provided outcomes as good as those with gingko.
  54. Itamura R, Hosoya R. Homeopathic Treatment of Japanese patients with intractable Atopic Dermatitis. Homeopathy, 2003, 92, 108-114. In this uncontrolled study, 17 people suffering from intractable atopic dermatitis undertook individualised homoeopathic treatment for the condition in conjunction with their existing pharmaceutical therapy, for a period of up to 2 years and 7 months. On an objective assessment and the patient's own assessment, all patients experienced in excess of 50% improvement by the end of the trial.
  55. Itamura R. Effect of homeopathic treatment of 60 Japanese patients with chronic skin disease. Complement Ther Med. 2007 Jun;15(2):115-20. 60 people were enrolled in this uncontrolled trial which was carried out in Obitsu Sankei Hospital in Kawagoe which was designed to determine the effect of individualised homeopathic medicines on several common skin disorders. These disorders included atopic dermatitis, eczema, acne, urticaria, psoriasis and alopecia universalis. Treatment occurred over a period of 3 months to 2 years and 7 months and subjects were permitted to use conventional dermatological treatments while taking part in the trial. Using the trial participantsown assessment, improvement or otherwise was assessed using a nine-point scale similar to the Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital Outcome Scale. On this basis, 6 people reported a complete recovery, 23 reported a 75% improvement, 24 found a 50% improvement and 7 had a 25% improvement). In all, 88.3% of patients reported over 50% improvement.
  56. Jacobs J, Jiminez J, Gloyd SG, et al. Treatment of Acute Childhood Diarrhoea with Homoeopathic Medicine. Paediatrics, May, 1994 93, 5, 719-725. In a randomised, placebo controlled trial with 81 children suffering from acute diarrhoea, individually prescribed homoeopathic medicines were found to be superior to placebo.
  57. Jacobs J, Jimenez M, Malthouse S, Chapman E, Crothers D, Masuk M, Jonas WB. Acute Childhood Diarrhoea- A Replication. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 6, 2000, 131-139. In a replication of a previous trial carried out by Jacobs and others, 116 Nepalese children aged 6 months to 5 years suffering from diarrhoea were given an individualised homoeopathic medicine or placebo over a 5 day period. Results assessed at the end of this period showed homeopathy to be superior to placebo as a means of relieving diarrhoea.
  58. Jacobs J, Springer DA et al. Homeopathic treatment of acute otitis media in children: a preliminary randomized placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2001, 20: 177-83. 75 children suffering from acute otitis media were given homeopathic treatment or were given treatment with placebo. On assessment it was found that homeopathy provided an improved outcome from this condition.
  59. Jacobs J, Jonas WB, Jimenez-Perez M, Crothers D. Homeopathy for childhood diarrhea: combined results and meta-analysis from three randomized, controlled clinical trials. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Mar;22(3):229-34. In this meta-analysis (an analysis carried out to determine overall trends in a group of similar studies) three double blind clinical trials of diarrhoea in 242 children aged 6 months to 5 years were analysed as one group. The children received either an individualised homeopathic medicine or a placebo, for 5 days after each unformed stool. Records were kept by parents and the duration of diarrhoea was defined as the time until there were less than 3 unformed stools per day for 2 consecutive days. Diarrhoea ceased in those taking homeopathic medicines after 3.3 days and after 4.1 days in those using placebo.
  60. Jacobs J, Herman P, Heron K, Olsen S, Vaughters L. Homeopathy for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2005, Feb, 11, 1,:21-7. This study compared the effects of an individualised homeopathic prescription with a homeopathic combination and placebo in 55 women suffering from menopausal symptoms for a period of 1 year. Both the individualised and combination homeopathic therapy provided an improvement in symptoms over placebo, with the individualised homeopathy showing the best outcomes over the first 3 months of the assessment period.
  61. Jeffrey SL, Belcher HJ. Use of Arnica to Relieve Pain after Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 2002, Mar-Apr, 8, 2, 66-8. 37 patients who had undergone carpal tunnel release surgery were given a combination of Arnica tablets and Arnica ointment or placebo. After 2 weeks of therapy, the group using Arnica reported a significant reduction in pain.
  62. Karow JH, Abt HP, Frohling M, Ackermann H. Efficacy of Arnica montana D4 for Healing of Wounds after Hallux valgus Surgery compared to Diclofenac. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):17-25. In this randomised, double-blinded, parallel group study, 88 people who were recovering from foot surgery were randomly assigned to receive either Arnica 4X at a rate of 10 pilules 3 times daily or Diclofenac 50mg 3 times daily. Both therapies were used for 4 days following the surgery. At day 4, subjects were assessed for their postoperative irritation, mobility, pain level, and their use of analgesics. Analysis of the results at this point showed that Arnica and Diclofenac provided the same level of reduction in wound irritation (including swelling) and mobility. Subjective assessment by patients rated Arnica as superior to Diclofenac for mobility. Diclofenac was superior to Arnica for pain reduction and there was no significant difference in analgesic use during the 4 days following surgery. It was also noted in the study that Arnica was 60% cheaper than Diclofenac.
  63. Kassab S, Cummings M, Berkovitz S, van Haselen R, Fisher P. Homeopathic Medicines for Adverse effects of Cancer Treatments. Cochrane Database Systematic Review. 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD004845. Cochrane Reviews investigate the effects of interventions for prevention, or treatment of illness, or rehabilitation from illness, in a healthcare setting. Most Cochrane Reviews are based on overviews of randomized controlled trials and other forms of evidence that are deemed to be appropriate. This review was conducted to determine what, if any, evidence (in the opinion of the Cochrane reviewers) exists for the treatment by homeopathy of the effects of conventional cancer therapies. A search through numerous databases revealed 8 controlled trials involved in this area of study, 7 of which were placebo controlled and 1 of which was against an active treatment. In total, the trials covered the outcomes of 664 people who'd been variously suffering from the adverse effects of radiotherapy, chemotherapy or breast cancer treatment. Of the 8, 2 trials exhibited beneficial effects from homeopathy. One of these involved a comparison between the effects of a topical corticosteroid and a homeopathic mother tincture of calendula for the prevention of dermatitis from radiotherapy where the calendula proved to be superior to the drug. The other involved the successful use of a homeopathic complex for stomatatitis caused by chemotherapy.
  64. Kayne S. A Pilot Trial to Study the Perceived Effectiveness of Homoeopathic remedies bought Over The Counter (OTC) in British Pharmacies. Journal of the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital NHS Trust, 1997, January 23-24, 90-94. 1000 questionnaires were sent to 8 UK pharmacies, requesting them to pass the questionnaires to customers. These, questionnaires asked the customers whether or not they found OTC homoeopathic medicines effective for the conditions for which they were purchased. A total of 257 users responded, and the accumulated results showed that 83% of respondents felt better after taking the product.
  65. Keil T, Witt CM, Roll S, Vancea W, Webera K, Wegscheiderb K, Willich SN. Homoeopathic versus Conventional Treatment of Children with Eczema: A comparative Cohort Study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine (2008) 16, 15-21. This was a prospective, multi-centre, parallel-group, comparative cohort study was conducted in urban and mixed urban-rural regions of Germany. 118 children suffering from clinically defined eczema seen at 54 homeopathic practices and 64 conventional medical practices were treated for the condition with the respective therapeutic protocols normally used in these clinics, i.e. individualised homeopathic or conventional medical therapy. Treatment occurred over a period of 12 months and the outcomes of the 2 different methods of therapy were assessed at 6 months and 12 months by the children or their parents on the basis of eczema signs and symptoms and the quality of life. Overall, on the basis of clinical symptoms and quality of life, there was little difference in the response rates of both groups to their respective therapies although at 12 months after starting treatment, those children who were treated homeopathically had a greater level of recovery from symptoms than those treated with conventional medicine. No adverse reactions were reported for either group
  66. Kim LS, Riedlinger JE, Baldwin CM, Hilli L, Khalsa SV, Messer SA, Waters RF. Treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis using homeopathic preparation of common allergens in the Southwest Region of the US: A randomized, controlled clinical trial. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2005, Apr, 39, 4, 617-24. In this double-blind trial, 34 people diagnosed with moderate to severe seasonal allergic rhinitis were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or a combination of potentised allergens (made from the pollens of trees, grasses or weeds identified as allergens). After the 4 week treatment period using 2 sprays 3 times a day of either the potentised allergen mix or placebo, the trial subjects were assessed on the basis of their allergy specific symptoms using 3 separate questionnaire formats (RQLQ, MOS SF-36 and the WPAI). The potentised allergen mix showed significant positive changes compared to placebo.
  67. Klopp R, Niemer W, Weiser M. Microcirculatory effects of a homeopathic preparation in patients with mild vertigo: an intravital microscopic study. Microvasc Res. 2005, 69, 1-2,10-6.The aim of this non-randomized, open study was to test the effectiveness of a homeopathic combination product on variables related to microcirculation in 16 people suffering from vestibular vertigo, compared to a control group of 16 untreated people also suffering from vestibular vertigo. Measurements were carried out in two areas (defined by selecting 60 blood-cell perfused nodal points of arterioles, venules, and capillaries with a mean diameter > or = 40 microns): the cuticulum/subcuticulum of the inside left lower arm and an area 5 mm behind the left earlobe. After 12 weeks of treatment, those people receiving the homeopathic preparation exhibited an increased number of nodal points, increased flow rates of erythrocytes in both arterioles and venules, increased vasomotion, and a slight reduction in hematocrit vs. baseline. None of these changes were observed in the control group. Measurements were also made of partial oxygen pressure and the numbers of cell-wall adhering leucocytes, both of which were significantly increased in the test group compared to the control group. All of these parameters were associated with a reduction in the severity of the vertigo symptoms, both on patient as well as practitioner assessment.
  68. Kneusel O, Weber M, Suter A. Arnica montana Gel in Osteoarthritis of the Knee: an open, multicenter clinical trial. Advanced Therapies, 2002, Sep-Oct, 19, 5, 209-18. In this uncontrolled study, 79 people suffering from mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee were given a gel containing Arnica and asked to apply it twice daily. They were assessed at 3 and 6 weeks for pain, stiffness and functional ability of the knee. Both assessments showed a significant reduction in pain and stiffness, and a significant improvement in the functional ability of the knee.
  69. Kulkarni A, Nagarkar BM, Burde GS. Radiation protection by use of homoeopathic medicines. Proceedings from the 8th Conference of Radiation Oncologists of India, Bombay, December 1986, reported in Hahnemann Homoeopath Sand, 1988 Jan,12, 1, 20-3. 82 patients receiving radiotherapy were randomly assigned to receive placebo, Cobaltum 30C or Causticum 30C as a means of assessing the effects of these against dermatological reactions to the radiotherapy. The homeopathic medicines provided a significant reduction in the degree of radiation reactions when compared to placebo
  70. Lamont J., Homoeopathic Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). British Homoeopathic Journal, 1997, 86, 196-200. 43 children with ADHD were given either a placebo or an individualised homeopathic medicine, in accordance with a double blind partial crossover dose regime. When the results were compared at the end of the trial, it was found that the homeopathic treatment for ADHD was superior to that using placebo.
  71. Launso L, Kimby CK, Henningsen I, Fonnebo V. An exploratory retrospective study of people suffering from hypersensitivity illnesses who attend medical or classical homeopathic treatment. Homeopathy. 2006 Apr;95 (2):73-80. This study reports the results of orthodox medical treatment compared to the homeopathic treatment of various hypersensitivity illnesses in 88 people. 34 of these people were treated using orthodox medical means and 54 using constitutional homeopathy. 24% of those treated medically experienced an improvement in their condition while 57% of those treated with homeopathy experienced similar relief.
  72. Ludke R, Weisenauer M. A Meta-analysis of Homeopathic Treatment of Pollinosis with Galphimia glauca. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 1997, 147, 14, 323-7. In this analysis, 7 randomised double-blind placebo controlled trials and 4 trials without placebo controls were examined to determine the therapeutic benefits of Galphimia glauca in pollinosis. In all studies except for one, Galphimia showed significant benefit over placebo where placebo controls were used, or showed significant clinical benefit where the remedy was not compared to placebo. The recovery rates for Galphimia were comparable with those seen with conventional anti-histamines, but without the same side effects.
  73. Maas HPJA. Ulcerative Colitis treated with Homoeopathy British Homoeopathic Journal, July 1993, 82, 179-185. In this retrospective case analysis, 24 people suffering from ulcerative colitis were treated in an Argentinian clinic using constitutional homoeopathy over periods of up to 19 years. Of these 24, 16 patients were assessed as having good outcomes.
  74. Manchanda RK, Mehan N, Bahl R, Atey R. Double Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trials of Homoeopathic Medicines in Warts and Molluscum contagiosum, CCRH Quarterly Bulletin, 1997, 19, 25-29. This trial was reported in two parts, one to evaluate the efficacy of homoeopathy for warts (remedies included Ruta graveolens, Nitricum acidum, Dulcamara, Causticum and Thuja) the other to evaluate the homoeopathic remedy, Calcarea carbonica, for Molluscum contagiosum. Placebo controlled studies involving a total of 147 subjects using single remedies in 30C potencies three times daily, 200C twice daily and 1M daily, for 15 days, showed that homoeopathy was superior to placebo. Thuja was the most successful of the remedies used for warts.
  75. Marian F, Joost K, Saini KD, von Ammon K, Thurneysen A, Busato A. Patient Satisfaction and Side Effects in Primary Care: An observational study comparing Homeopathy and Conventional Medicine. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2008 Sep 18;8(1):52. This was a study carried out by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health designed to determine levels of patient satisfaction and the perception of side effects following the use of homeopathic medicine. It was part of a national program designed to evaluate complementary and alternative medicine use in Switzerland. The bulk of the data used in the study came from questionnaires filled in over a specific 4 day period supplied by physicians using conventional medicine, physicians using homeopathic medicine, and from patients who'd filled in questionnaires mailed to them 1 month after treatment. 170 practitioners were involved in the study. A total of 3126 questionnaires were received by the researchers and analysis of these revealed the following. 21% of those treated with homeopathy reported "complete resolution" of the presenting complaint versus 28% of those on conventional therapy and 53% reported "complete satisfaction" with homeopathic treatment versus 40% of those given conventional therapy. The rate of side effects reported by those using homeopathy was less than those given conventional medicine.
  76. Maronna U, Weiser M, Klein P. Comparison of the Efficacy and Tolerance of Zeel comp. and Diclofenac for the Oral Treatment of Gonarthrosis. Biological Medicine, 2000, 29, 3, 157-158. Diclofenac, a non-steroidal inflammatory drug, is a commonly prescribed medicine for rheumatic diseases. The effects of this drug were compared to those of Zeel, a homoeopathic complex preparation, with 121 people suffering from gonarthrosis. The trial was designed as a randomised, double-blind, actively controlled parallel study. Assessments for pain, stiffness and functional ability were carried out at 2, 4, 6 and 10 weeks after commencing treatments and by the end of the 10 week period, there were no statistical differences observed in the outcomes of both treatment regimes. The homoeopathic complex product and the drug were equally effective in the management of gonarthrosis.
  77. Mathie RT, Farrer S. Outcomes from homeopathic prescribing in dental practice: a prospective, research-targeted, pilot study. Homeopathy. 2007 Apr;96(2):74-81. This paper presented the results of a study into the effectiveness of individualised homeopathic medicines for the management of common dental complaints and the effectiveness of a specific protocol used to collect such data. 14 dentists who routinely practice homeopathy contributed data to the study and data from the observations of and by 726 individual patients were collected. Of the 496 patients who were able to be followed up, 90.1% reported a positive outcome, 1.8% experienced a deterioration of the condition and 7.9% of patients reported no change.
  78. Matusiewicz R. The effect of a homoepathic preparation on the clinical condition of patients with corticosteroid dependant bronchial asthma. Biomedical Therapy, 1997, June, 15, 3, 70-74. In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study, 40 people suffering from corticosteroid- dependant bronchial asthma were given either placebo or a combination homeopathic formula, every 5 to 7 days by subcutaneous injection. Using standard spirometry and granulocyte function to measure the response, researchers found that the combination product provided superior results to placebo.
  79. McCutcheon LE. Treatment of anxiety with a homoeopathic remedy Journal of Applied Nutrition, 1996, 48, 1& 2, 2-6. 72 people with above-average levels of anxiety were enrolled in this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and assigned to either a test or control (placebo) group to assess the relative benefits of a combination homeopathic product designed to relieve anxiety. Using sleep loss as a measure of anxiety, the combination product produced results that were better than those from placebo.
  80. Milewska G, Trzebiatowska-Trzeciak O. Homoeopathic Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal British Homoeopathic Journal, October 1993, 82, 249-251. Alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens experienced by 30 alcoholics was the focus of this uncontrolled study carried out in a Polish medical clinic. Patients were treated with individualised homeopathy and their progress followed for 2 months. The treatment resulted in a reduced duration of alcohol withdrawal time and delirium tremens in all patients.
  81. Mohan GR, et al, Cervical Spondylosis- a Clinical Study, British Homoeopathic Journal, July 1996, 85, 131-133. In this uncontrolled study, 154 people suffering from cervical spondylosis were prescribed either homoeopathic Calcium fluoride, or a remedy selected via repertorisation of their mental and physical general symptoms, and their progress monitored for 1 year. Of those given Calc fluor, clinical improvement was seen in 60% of cases. 48% of those given the remedy arrived at by repertorisation reported clinical improvement.
  82. Mohan GR, Anandhi KS. Efficacy of homeopathic drugs in dermatitis of atopic diathesis. Homoeopathic Links, 2003, Winter, 16, 4, 257-260. The authors treated 31 people suffering from either atopic skin and respiratory symptoms, or atopic skin symptoms alone. Both groups were treated with individualised homeopathic therapy over a period of 5 years. During a 6 month assessment period following this treatment, the authors determined that 41% of the group with skin and respiratory symptoms achieved not less than a 76% improvement in symptoms and 58% of the group with skin symptoms alone achieved this outcome.
  83. Mohan GR. Efficacy of Homeopathy in Childhood Asthmas. Homeopathic Links, Summer 2007, Vol 20, 104-107. This paper reports of work done in India by homeopath, GR Mohan, looking at the results of the homeopathic treatment of 81 children suffering from clinically defined asthma who had previously been treated unsuccessfully with conventional medicine. This open study involved the use of individually prescribed homeopathic medicines for a period of 2 years as a means of reducing the recurrence of asthma attacks. Results were assessed according the 12 point Modified Borg Scale, a subjective scale used to assess the severity of dyspnoea. At the end of the allotted 2 year period, the results were analysed and it was found that asthma had become controlled in 60.5% of children who'd been treated with homeopathy, and some control was achieved in a further 21%. 12.3% of the group failed to respond to the treatment. The medicines used most frequently in this study were Arsenicum album, Merc solubilis, Hepar sulph, Arsenicum iod, Antimony tart, Pulsatilla and Calc carb.
  84. Mojaver YN, Mosavi F, Mazaherinezhad A, Shahrdar A, Manshaee K.. Individualized homeopathic treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: an observational study. Homeopathy. 2007 Apr;96(2):82-6. This uncontrolled study, carried out in the Department of Oral Medicine at Iran's Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, was designed to discover if individually prescribed homeopathic medicines could provide relief from medically diagnosed trigeminal neuralgia. 15 people suffering from the condition were enrolled in the study and after receiving their individual prescriptions they were assessed monthly using a Visual Analogue Scale to gauge the severity of their symptoms. After the results were assessed at 4 months it was found that individualised homeopathic treatment was associated with an average reduction in pain intensity of more than 60%.
  85. Muller-Krampe B, Oberbaum M, Dipl-Math PK, Weiser M. Effects of Spascupreel versus hyoscine butylbromide for gastrointestinal cramps in children. Pediatr Int. 2007 Jun;49(3):328-34. In this observational cohort study, 204 children under 12 years of age suffering from gastrointestinal spasms and cramps were given either hyoscine butylbromide, a drug commonly prescribed for these conditions, or Spascupreel, a homeopathic complex. After a 1 week period of treatment, the results from these interventions were assessed by a practitioner reviewing reports from the child's parent or carer using severity of spasms, pain or cramps, sleep disturbances, eating or drinking difficulties, and the frequency of crying, to measure outcomes according to a 4 point scale. Analysis of the results showed that both medicines provided similar levels of benefit.
  86. Muscari-Tomaioli G, Allegri F, Miali E, Pomposelli R, Tubia P, Targhetta A, Castellini M, Bellavite P. Observational Study of Quality of Life in patients with Headache, receiving Homeopathic Treatment. British Homoeopathic Journal, 2001, 90, 189-197. In this study, 53 people suffering from headaches were treated by the individual study authors using constitutionally prescribed homeopathic medicines, completing SF-36 health-related quality of life questionnaires before and 4-6 months after beginning the treatment. More the 60% of the subjects experienced an improvement in the condition.
  87. Oberbaum M, Schreiber R, Rosenthal C, Itzchaki M. Homeopathic Treatment in Emergency Medicine, a case series. Homeopathy, 2003, 92, 44-47. In this study, 15 people suffering from orthopaedic trauma were treated in a medical centre with homoeopathy, in addition to standard medical treatment. Treatment was commenced 24 hours after admission. All patients initially received homeopathic Arnica 200C and anxiety was treated with Aconite, Opium, Ignatia or Arsenicum album, all in 200C potency. 24 hours following this treatment, the majority of patients reported a reduction in pain and anxiety. 48 hours after admission, patients were treated with individualised homoeopathic remedies. At discharge, 67% of patients rated the homoeopathic treatment as successful.
  88. Oberbaum M, Galoyan N, Lerner-Geva L, et al. The effect of the homeopathic remedies Arnica montana and Bellis perennis on mild postpartum bleeding--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study: preliminary results. Complement Ther Med. 2005 Jun, 13, 2, 87-90. Forty women experiencing post-partum bleeding were randomly assigned to receive a mixture of Arnica 30C and Bellis 30C, Arnica 6C and Bellis 6C, or placebo. Mean haemoglobin values were measured at 72 hours post-partum, at which point it was found that those women given homeopathic therapy experienced significantly less change in haemoglobin values than those given placebo.
  89. Pai PN; Thiosinaminum in the Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis with Calcaneal Spurs. British Homoeopathic Journal, October, 1992, 81, 173-175. In this uncontrolled study, 43 people suffering from plantar fasciitis and calcaneal spurs were treated with homeopathic Thiosinimum, Thiosinimum and Merc cor, or Thiosinimum and Merc biniod. Thiosinimum alone proved to be the therapy most likely to be helpful in resolving recently developed cases.
  90. Pai PN. Nephrotic Syndrome. British Homoeopathic Journal, 1969, 58, 94. In a case series, 23 children suffering from clinically diagnosed nephrotic syndrome were treated using individualised homeopathic medicines for periods varying from 1 month to 7 years. Subjects received acute and/or chronic treatment for the condition and in several acute episodes, corticosteroid therapy was used, in addition to homeopathic management. For the majority of the children treated either with homeopathic or a combination of homeopathic and corticosteroid therapy, the severity of the symptoms they had previously experienced was reduced. The main homeopathic remedies used in the cases mentioned in this study included homeopathic Apis mellifica, Arsenicum album, Natrum muriaticum and Silica.
  91. Pomposelli R, Piasere V, Andreoni C, Costini G, Tonini E, Spalluzzi A, Observational study of Homeopathic and Conventional therapies in patients with Diabetic Polyneuropathy. Homeopathy. 2009 Jan;98(1):17-25. Researchers at the University of Verona in Italy designed this observational study to compare the effects of homeopathic therapy with conventional drug therapy for diabetic neuropathy. Over a 12 month period, 32 patients treated with homeopathy and 29 patients given conventional drug therapy were assessed for clinical symptoms and quality of life at baseline, 6 months and 12 months after beginning treatment. Improvement from baseline polyneuropathy symptoms was noted in both groups but only those treated homeopathically reached outcomes that were statistically significant. Both groups experienced improvements in blood pressure and body weight as well as levels of fasting blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin. In addition, only those in the homeopathy group noted an improvement in quality of life scores over the period of the study. It was also noted that homeopathic treatment was more economical than the conventional drug alternative.
  92. Popov A.V. Homoeopathy in the Treatment of Patients with Fibromyoma of the Uterus. British Homoeopathic Journal, October 1992, 81, 164-167. In this study, 84 women suffering from various forms of uterine fibromyoma were prescribed individualised homeopathic medicines over a period of 1 to 3 years. Assessments at the end of the treatment period found that pain was improved in 79% of the subjects, abnormal bleeding was improved in 75% of subjects and in the majority of subjects the treatment resulted in a reduction of fibromyoma volume.
  93. Rabe A., Weiser M., Klein P. Effectiveness and tolerability of a homoeopathic remedy compared with conventional therapy for mild viral infections. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 2004, Sep, 58, 9, 827-32. In this observational cohort study, 485 people with symptoms of mild viral infection (fever, headache, myalgia, cough or sore throat), were treated either via conventional medical means or with a homeopathic combination product. On a practitioner evaluation basis, at the end of the treatment period, the homeopathic combination provided a successful outcome in 78% of cases and conventional treatment in 52% of cases.
  94. Rai Y. Treatment of Drug Dependants with Homoeopathy. CCRH Quarterly Bulletin, 16, 3&4, 1994, 25-28. 261 people suffering from symptoms related to the withdrawal from drugs of dependence were treated with individualised homoeopathy. Remedies were given at 8 to 12 hours after ceasing use of the drug. 209 (80%) of the subjects found the treatment to be effective.
  95. Rastogi DP, Singh VP, Singh V, Dey SK, Rao K. Homeopathy in HIV infection. British Homoeopathic Journal, 1999, 88, 49-57. In a randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trial, 50 people with asymptomatic HIV infection and 50 people with symptomatic (persistent generalised lymphadenopathy) HIV infection and were given either placebo or an individualised homoeopathic medicine. Using numbers of pre and post treatment CD4+ve T-lymphocytes as a measure, it was found that homoeopathic treatment was successful for symptomatic HIV sufferers, but not for asymptomatic sufferers.
  96. Reilly R, Taylor MA, McSharry C, et al. Is Homoeopathy a Placebo Response? Lancet, Oct 18, 1986, 881- 885. 144 people suffering from hayfever were enrolled in a randomised, placebo controlled trial. The use of 30C mixed grass pollens provided better clinical outcomes than placebo.
  97. Riley D, Fischer M, Singh B, Haidvogl M, Heger M. Homeopathy and Conventional Medicine: An Outcomes Study Comparing Effectiveness in a Primary Care Setting. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2001, Apr, 7, 2, 149-59. In this study, carried out by 30 investigators, at 6 clinics in 4 countries, 456 patients suffering from upper respiratory allergies, lower respiratory allergies or ear disorders were assigned to one of two groups- those prescribed homeopathic medicines (group A) or those prescribed standard medical treatment (Group B). The outcome measure was the response to treatment after 14 days, as well as the speed of recovery, rate of side effects, level of general satisfaction and length of consultation. The response to treatment within 14 days was 82.6% in Group A and 68% in Group B. For recovery speed, 67% of Group A recovered within 3 days and 57% of Group A recovered at this speed. The side effect rate for Group A was 8% compared to 22% for Group B. Those claiming to be very satisfied with their respective treatments were 79% of Group A and 65% of Group B. The majority (60%) of both groups received consultations that lasted for between 5 and 15 minutes.
  98. Riveron-Garrote M, et al. Clinical Trial of Asthma, Boletin Mexicano, 1998, 31, 54-61. In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, 63 asthma sufferers were treated for 4 months with either specific homoeopathic remedies or placebo. Assessed using peak flow rates, 97% of those taking homoeopathic medicines and 12% or those taking placebo experienced an improvement.
  99. Robertson A, Suryanarayanan R, Banerjee A Homeopathic Arnica montana for post-tonsillectomy analgesia: a randomised placebo control trial. Homeopathy. 2007 January, 96, 1, 17-21. In this trial, 190 people undergoing tonsillectomy were randomly assigned to receive Arnica 30C or a placebo at a dose rate of 2 tablets 6 times in the first post-operative day and then 2 tablets twice a day for the next 7 days. On a patient-assessed 14 days post-operative visual analogue scale for pain, those given the Arnica 30C were found to have a statistically significant decrease in pain scores compared to placebo.
  100. Robinson T. Responses to homeopathic treatment in National Health Service general practice. Homeopathy. 2006 Jan;95(1):9-14. This study was designed to determine the level of effectiveness of homeopathy as used in a general practice clinic where the standard 10 minute consultation time applies. To do this, 5,331 patient files, taken from one 12 month period in one general practice clinic, were examined and those files that described a consultation where a homeopathic medicine was given were separated out for analysis. This produced a total of 489 consultations that resulted in a homeopathic medicine prescription. Of these, 78% of patients had a positive response to their treatment with homeopathy, 19% had no response, and 3% had a negative response.
  101. Sanchez-Resendiz J, Guzman-Gomez F. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Boletin Mexicano de Homeopatica, 30, 1997, 11-15. 36 women suffering from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), and fitting the mental picture of the homoeopathic remedy Pulsatilla, were given Pulsatilla 6C, 4 hourly throughout the day for 2 weeks after the end of menstruation, and this was repeated for 4 consecutive cycles. At the end of the trial 30 of the 36 women had complete disappearance of the symptoms of PCOS and the production of normal ovulating follicles and a further 4 of the 36 became asymptomatic
  102. Saruggia M, Corghi E. Effects of homoeopathic dilutions of China rubra on intradialytic symptomatology in patients treated with haemodialysis. British Homoeopathic Journal, 1992, April, 81, 2, 86-88. Using a double-blind, randomised, crossover, placebo- controlled trial design, 35 people with end-stage renal failure on regular haemodialysis were assessed to determine their response to either placebo or China rubra 9C. Those people using the China experienced statistically significant relief from asthenia, headache and lethargy.
  103. Schlappack O. Homeopathic treatment of radiation induced itching in breast cancer patients. A prospective observational study. Homeopathy, 2004, 93, 210-215. 25 women suffering from post-radiotherapy induced itching were treated at the University of Vienna's Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology using individualised homeopathic medicines. After assessment (1-27 days after beginning the treatment) it was found that homeopathic treatment had been successful in 21 of the women enrolled in the study.
  104. Schmidt CA. Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: Arnica montana Applied Topically to Subcutaneous Mechanical Injuries. Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy, Winter 1996, 89, 4, 186- 193. In this trial 141 runners were asked to use topical preparations containing placebo, Arnica 1X or Arnica 6C, and to rate the effectiveness of the preparations at relieving post-exercise muscle soreness. The preparation containing Arnica provided superior results to placebo and preparation containing Arnica 1X was reported to be superior to that containing Arnica 6C.
  105. Schmiedel V, Klein P. A complex homeopathic preparation for the symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory infections associated with the common cold: An observational study. Explore (NY). 2006 Mar;2 (2):109-14. 379 people suffering from upper respiratory infections were given either conventional medical treatment (antihistamines, anti-tussives, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) or a combination homeopathic product. Using variables such as fatigue, sensation of illness, chill/tremor, aching joints, overall severity of illness, sum of all clinical variables, and temperature to assess the effects of either form of therapy, the researchers found that both approaches were effective, although the homeopathic combination provided faster relief from symptoms (77% were improved within 3 days compared to 62%).
  106. Schneider C, Klein P, Stolt P, Oberbaum M. A homeopathic ointment preparation compared with 1% diclofenac gel for acute symptomatic treatment of tendinopathy. Explore (NY). 2005 Nov, 1, 6, 446-52. In this non-randomised, observational study carried out in 95 German homeopathic and conventional medical clinics, 357 people with various forms of tendinopathy were given either an ointment containing a mixture of homeopathic remedies, or Diclofenac (a popular nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent), for up to 28 days. Using a four-degree scale on pain-related variables related to motility, and on overall treatment outcome, the ointment containing the mixture of homeopathic remedies provided a therapeutic outcome that was superior to Diclofenac.
  107. Schneider C, Schneider B, Hanisch J, van Haselen R. The role of a homoeopathic preparation compared with conventional therapy in the treatment of injuries: an observational cohort study. Complement Ther Med. 2008 Feb;16(1):22-7. The researchers in this study set out to compare the effectiveness of a homeopathic combination product (Traumeel) with conventional medical treatment ,for injuries. 125 people suffering from various musculoskeletal injuries were treated either with the homeopathic combination or conventional medicine and were assessed for resolution of the complaint at the end of the trial period. At this point, the 59.4% of the group receiving the homeopathic combination had complete resolution compared with 57.8% of the group treated with conventional medicine. 6.3% of the latter group experienced adverse reactions to the treatment and none of those on the homeopathic combination experienced side effects.
  108. Schroder D, Weiser M, Klein P. Efficacy of a Homeopathic Crataegus preparation compared with usual therapy for Mild Cardiac Insufficiency: Results of an Observational Cohort Study. European Journal of Heart Failure, 2003, June, 5, 3, 319-26. In a non-randomised cohort study, 212 people suffering from mild cardiac insufficiency were given Cralonin, a homoeopathic combination product, or a combination of an ACE inhibitor and diuretic (a combination medical therapy normally prescribed for this condition). Both products were similarly effective in controlling the condition.
  109. Seeley BM, Denton AB, Ahn MS, et al. Effect of homeopathic Arnica montana on bruising in face-lifts: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2006 Jan-Feb, 8, 1, 54-9. In this trial, 29 people who were undergoing facelifts were randomised to receive either perioperative homeopathic arnica, or placebo. They were examined post-operatively for bruising at days 1, 5, 7 and 10. Assessment done at days 1 and 7 showed a signification reduction in bruising when compared to placebo.
  110. Sevar R. Audit of outcome in 829 consecutive patients treated with homeopathic medicines. British Homeopathic Journal, 2000, 89, 178- 187. In this study, consecutive patient files in a single homeopathic clinic were examined to determine the success or otherwise of this form of treatment. Of the 829 patients surveyed, 61% had a sustained improvement from their constitutional homeopathic treatment.
  111. Sevar R. Audit of outcome in 455 consecutive patients treated with homeopathic medicines. Homeopathy. 2005 Oct, 94, 4, 215-21. This study examined the effect of individualised homeopathic treatment of 455 consecutive patients in a homeopathic medical clinic who'd previously had unsuccessful orthodox medical treatment or were considered to be unsuitable for orthodox medical treatment. Of these, 67% derived benefit from homeopathic therapy, and 33% were able to stop or maintain a substantial reduction in their pharmaceutical drug therapy.
  112. Shackleton M.F., Tondora CM, Whiting S, Whitney M. The Effect of Homeopathic Coca on High Altitude Mountain Sickness. Complementary Health Practice Review, 2000, 6, 1, 45- 55. 11 members of the 1998 Everest Challenge Expedition were given either placebo or Coca 200C daily. Assessed on the primary symptoms of altitude sickness as well as oxygen saturation, those using the homoeopathic medicine showed significantly less signs and symptoms of altitude sickness.
  113. Shealy CN, Thomlinson PR, Cox RH, Bormeyer V. Osteoarthritis Pain: A Comparison of Homoeopathy and Acetaminophen. American Journal of Pain Management, 8, 3, July 1998, 89-91. In this trial, 65 sufferers of osteoarthritis (OA) were split into 2 groups, and through a double blinding process were given either a homoeopathic medicine or Acetaminophen, a commonly prescribed drug for pain relief in OA. Researchers found that homoeopathy provided a level of pain relief that was superior to Acetaminophen, and produced no adverse reactions.
  114. Smith SA, Baker AE, Williams JH. Effective Treatment of Seborrhaic Dermatitis using a Low Dose Oral Homeopathic Medication. Alternative Medicine Reviews, 2002, Feb, 7, 1, 59-67. 41 patients with seborrhaic dermatitis received either placebo or a homoeopathic combination product for 10 weeks. Significant improvement was seen in the test group when compared to those using placebo.
  115. Spence DS, Thompson EA, Barron SJ. Homeopathic treatment for chronic disease: a 6-year, university-hospital outpatient observational study. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct, 11, 5, 793-8. This study looked at the effectiveness of individualised homeopathic therapy over a 6 year period in a UK homeopathic hospital outpatient department. The results from 6544 consecutive patients were examined, and when compared to baseline observations it was found that of these patients, 70% reported an improvement in their conditions.
  116. Stanton HE. Test and Anxiety- A Five Drop Solution. Education News, 1981, 17, 6, 12-15. In this trial, 40 students suffering from test-induced anxiety were given either homeopathic Argentum nitricum 12X or placebo. The level of test-induced anxiety was significantly reduced from the homeopathic medicine when compared to the placebo and this effect appeared to persist over time.
  117. Steinsbekk A, Ludtke R. Patients' assessments of the effectiveness of homeopathic care in Norway: a prospective observational multicentre outcome study. Homeopathy, 2005, 94, 1, 10-6. In this prospective uncontrolled observational multi-centre outcome study, 654 people who'd visited 80 Norwegian homeopaths were asked to assess, via a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) the effectiveness of this form of treatment comparing the VAS score at their first consultation with the VAS score 6 months later. After the results were collated it was found that 70% of those people visiting a Norwegian homeopath reported a meaningful improvement in their main complaint 6 months after the initial consultation.
  118. Strauss LC. The Efficacy of a Homeopathic Preparation in the Management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Biomedical Therapy, 2000, 18, 2, 197- 201. 20 children suffering from ADHD, were given either placebo or a homoeopathic combination (Heel Selenium-Homaccord) and were assessed in accordance with pre and post test conduct and psychosomatic problems, impulsivity and anxiety. The homoeopathic combination provided superior results to those of placebo.
  119. Taylor MA, Reilly D, Llewellan-Jones RH, McSharry C, Aitchison TC. Randomised Controlled Trial of Homoeopathy versus Placebo in Perennial Allergic Rhinitis with Overview of Four Trial Series. British Medical Journal, 2000, 321, 471-476, 19 August. 51 people suffering from allergic rhinitis were randomly assigned either homeopathically potentised allergens or placebo. Those given the medicine experienced significant relief over those assigned the placebo.
  120. Trichard M, Chaufferin G, Nicoloyannis N. Pharmaco-economic comparison between homeopathic and antibiotic treatment strategies in recurrent acute rhinopharyngitis in children. Homeopathy. 2005, 94, 1, 3-9. In this 6 month prospective study involving 499 children suffering from acute rhinopharyngitis, the effectiveness, quality of life and cost of treatment with homeopathic (Group A) versus antibiotic (Group B) medicines, as prescribed by French medical practitioners, were assessed. Effectiveness, as measured by the numbers of episodes occurring subsequent to treatment, was 2.71 for Group A and 3.97 for Group B and quality of life as measured by the ParEnt-Qol scale was 21 for Group A versus 30 for Group B, which indicates a higher quality of life for those in Group A. In regard to costs, average direct medical costs were 88 Euros for Group A and 99 for Group B. Parental sick-leave affected 9.5% of the parents from Group A and 30% for Group B.
  121. Tuten C, McLung J. Reducing Muscle Soreness with Arnica Montana. Alternative and Complementary Therapies, December 1999, 5, 6, 369- 372. 23 people were given either placebo or Arnica 6X for the management of delayed onset muscle soreness after exercise. Outcomes were assessed subjectively by the participants themselves, and by creatinine kinase (CK) assays. CK levels are indicative of muscle or connective tissue damage. While there was only a small subjective difference between the 2 groups, the people using Arnica 6X produced less CK than those using placebo, which tends to indicate that those using Arnica experienced less tissue damage on exertion.
  122. Tveiten D, Bruset S, Borchgrevink CFS, Norsch J. Arnica and Muscle Soreness. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Medicine (FACT), 1998, 3 (4), 155-156. 46 competitors in the 3 day 1995 Oslo marathon were randomly assigned either homeopathic Arnica or placebo twice daily and assessed for muscle soreness after the event. Those using Arnica found significant relief with the medicine over the placebo.
  123. Tveiten D, Bruset S. Effect of Arnica D30 in marathon runners. Pooled results from two double-blind placebo controlled studies. Homeopathy. 2003 Oct;92(4):187-9. In this study combing the effects of two clinical trials on homeopathic Arnica D30 (30X), the homoeopathic remedy was compared to placebo in 82 Oslo marathon runners for muscle enzymes, electrolytes and creatinine (indicating cell damage) and the subjective control of muscular soreness. Those runners taking Arnica experienced less muscle soreness when compared to placebo, but there was no difference between both groups for muscle enzymes, electrolytes and creatinine.
  124. Van Erp VM, Brands M. Homoeopathic Treatment of Malaria in Ghana. British Homoeopathic Journal, 1996, April, 85, 2, 66-70. In a randomised double blind trial with limited numbers of subjects, homoeopathic treatment was compared to treatment by Chloroquine. The group using homoeopathic medicines experienced an 83.3% improvement, while the group using Chloroquine experienced a 72% improvement within the same time period.
  125. Van Haselen RA, Fisher PA. A randomized controlled trial comparing topical piroxicam gel with a homeopathic gel in osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheumatology, 2000, Jul, 39, 7, 714-9. In this controlled double-blind trial, 172 people with radiographically confirmed symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee were randomly assigned to receive treatment with either piroxicam gel (a commonly prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory gel) or a gel containing 3 homeopathic ingredients (Symphytum, Rhus tox and Ledum). At the conclusion of the trial it was found that the gel containing the homeopathic ingredients was at least as effective as the piroxicam gel.
  126. Van Wasserhoven M., Ives G. An Observational Study of Patients receiving Homeopathic Treatment. Homeopathy, 2004, 93, 3-11. 782 people suffering from a wide range of diseases who had visited 80 general medical practices in Belgium were treated with individualised homeopathic medicines over an average period of 9 years and 2 months. Most of these people had previously been treated using conventional drugs. The outcomes from this treatment were assessed both by the patients and the practitioners via questionnaires. 13% of the patients assessed in the study expressed satisfaction with previous conventional treatment and 89% of patients expressed satisfaction with their homeopathic treatment.
  127. Von Gasssinger C. A., Wunstel G., Netter P. A Controlled Clinical Trial for Testing the Efficacy of the Homoeopathic Drug Eupatorium perfoliatum D2 in the Treatment of Common Cold. Arzneimittel Forschung, 1981, 31, 4, 732-736. In this trial, 53 people suffering from the common cold were given either acetylsalicylic acid or Eupatorium perfoliatum 2X. Eupatorium was shown to be as effective as the acetylsalicylic acid in its ability to provide benefit to those suffering from the common cold.
  128. Walach H, Mollinger H, Sherr J, Schneider R. Homeopathic Pathogenetic Trials produce More Specific than Non-Specific Symptoms: Results from Two Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trials. J Psychopharmacol. 2008 Jul;22(5):543-52. Professor Harold Walach of the University of Northampton and his colleagues have made something of a habit of carrying out provings of homeopathic medicines (particularly Belladonna) within fairly rigidly controlled settings. In this instance the researchers set up 2 studies, both of which were carried out in blinded conditions. The first of these compared the symptoms seen in a controlled proving of homeopathically prepared Ozone with the effects of a placebo used in the same way. The second test compared the symptoms seen in a controlled proving of homeopathically prepared Ozone and Iridium, used individually, with the symptoms seen from the use of placebo. On analysis, the results showed that both Ozone and Iridium, when used under proving conditions, produced a statistically significant level of symptoms specific to the original provings for the homeopathic preparation.
  129. Waldschutz R, Klein P. The homeopathic preparation Neurexan Vs. Valerian for the Treatment of Insomnia: An observational study. Scientific World Journal. 2008 Apr 20; 8: 411-20. This German study, conducted across 89 clinics, compared the effects of a homeopathic combination preparation to valerian on sleep latency (the time take to fall asleep), sleep duration, the quality of sleep, and daytime fatigue, over a period of 28 days. 409 people were enrolled in the study and analysis of the results found an improvement from both medicines with a reduction in latency time (37.3 minutes for the combination versus 38.2 minutes for valerian) and increase in sleep duration (2.2 hours for the combination versus 2 hours for valerian). The primary difference between the 2 interventions appeared to be that the homeopathic combination resulted in less daytime fatigue than valerian- 49% versus 32%.
  130. Weatherley-Jones E, Nicholl JP, Thomas KJ, Parry GJ, McKendrick MW, Green ST, Stanley PJ, Lynch SP. A randomised, controlled, triple-blind trial of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2004, Feb, 56, 2, 189-97. In this well-controlled trial, where the practitioners, trial subjects and data analysts were all blinded to the group assignments until the end of the data collection period, individualised homeopathic prescriptions were compared to placebo in 79 people suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (as determined by the Oxford criteria for CFS). The trial was carried out over a 6 month period with monthly observations used to determine clinical progress according to the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) as a primary measure and the Fatigue Impact Scale and Functional Limitations Profile as secondary measures. On the primary MFI measure, those using the individualised homeopathy had significant improvement over placebo.
  131. Weiser M, Clasen BPE. Controlled Double Blind study of a Homoeopathic Sinusitis Medication. Biological Therapy, 1995, 13, 1, 4- 11. In a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial, 155 people suffering from sinusitis were given either a placebo or a homoeopathic combination (Heel Euphorbium compositum). Subjective responses showed a greater improvement in those using the homoeopathic combination than those given placebo.
  132. Weisser M, Strosser W, Klein P. Homeopathic vs Conventional Treatment of Vertigo. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 1998, Aug, 124, 8, 879-885. A study group of 119 people suffering from vertigo were treated either with betahistine hydrochloride (acting as an active control, commonly prescribed by medical authorities for this condition) or a homoeopathic complex. Both of the interventions were equally successful in relieving vertigo.
  133. Weiser M, Gegenheimer LH, Klein P. A Randomised Equivalence Trial Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Luffa comp.-Heel Nasal Spray with Cromolyn Sodium Spray in the Treatment of Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis. Forschende Komplementarmedizin, 1999, 6, 142-148. In this trial, 146 people suffering from hay fever were treated with either Luffa comp.-Heel Nasal Spray (a homoeopathic combination product) or with Cromolyn Sodium Spray (a pharmaceutical drug commonly prescribed for hay fever). The treatment outcomes were measured according to a quality of life scale and both medicines provided the same level of remission of the condition, which was rapid and persistent.
  134. Widrig R, Suter A, Saller R, Melzer J. Choosing between NSAID and arnica for topical treatment of hand osteoarthritis in a randomised, double-blind study. Rheumatol Int. 2007 Apr;27(6):585-91. Using a double-blind protocol, 204 people suffering from radiologically confirmed and symptomatically active osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to receive either topical arnica or topical ibuprofen to be applied to the area where the condition was active. The success or failure of the treatments was assessed according to functional ability of the affected part and pain intensity in this area after 21 days of continuous treatment. Assessment of the results at the end of this period found that topical arnica was as successful as topical ibuprofen for the management of osteoarthritis.
  135. Wiesenauer M, Haussler S, Gaus W. Pollinosis therapy with Galphimia glauca. Fortschritte der Medezin, 1983, 101, 17, 811-814. Using a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multi-centre design in this trial, 86 people suffering from hay fever were treated for 5 and a half weeks with either homeopathic Galphimia glauca 4X or placebo. Therapeutic success was seen in 83% of those using the Galphimia and 47% of those using placebo.
  136. Wiesenauer M, Gaus W, Haussler S. Treatment of Pollinosis with Galphimia glauca. Allergologie, 1990, 10, 359-363. 54 practitioners treated 201 people suffering from hay fever either with placebo or homeopathic Galphimia glauca. Assessment at the end of the 5 week treatment period found that nasal symptoms were cured or significantly improved in 77% of subjects using Galphimia versus 46% of those using placebo and eye symptoms were cured or significantly improved in 77% of subjects using Galphimia versus 51% of those using placebo.
  137. Wiesenauer M, Gaus W. Proof of the Effectiveness of a Homeopathic Preparation in Chronic Polyarthritis. Erzten Akt Rheumatol, 1991, 16, 1-9. In this randomised, double-blind clinical trial, 111 people being treated by 6 general practitioners for rheumatoid arthritis were given either placebo or a combination of homeopathic Berberis, Bryonia, Ledum, Nux vomica and Ledum. Using pain, stiffness, inflammatory signs, fatigue and a functional index to determine clinical outcomes, at the end of the 12 week treatment period it was found that the homeopathic combination provided superior results to those of placebo.
  138. Witt CM, Ludtke R, Baur R, Willich SN. Homeopathic medical practice: long-term results of a cohort study with 3981 patients. BMC Public Health. 2005 Nov, 3, 5, 115. In this study, 3981 patients being treated in private homeopathic medical clinics in Germany and Switzerland were assessed for the effectiveness of their homeopathic treatment over a 2 year period. When compared to baseline assessments taken immediately before treatment had begun, the adults in the study experienced a reduction in disease severity of 52% and children by 64%.
  139. Witt C, Keil T, Selim D, Roll S, Vance W, Wegscheider K, Willich SN. Outcome and costs of homoeopathic and conventional treatment strategies: a comparative cohort study in patients with chronic disorders. Complement Ther Med. 2005 Jun;13(2):79-86. This cohort study, carried out in Germany, examined the outcomes of homeopathic treatment compared to the orthodox medical treatment of 493 people suffering from a range of chronic illnesses including headache, lower back pain, insomnia, depression, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. The patients' assessments, taken at 6 months and 12 months from the beginning of the treatment, found that homeopathy provided a greater level of improvement in their illnesses than orthodox medical intervention. This difference appeared to be more pronounced in children than in adults. In regard to the cost of each type of therapy, this study showed these costs to be similar to each other.
  140. Witt CM, Ludtke R, Mengler N, Willich SN. How healthy are Chronically Ill Patients after Eight years of Homeopathic Treatment? - Results from a long term observational study. BMC Public Health 2008, 8:413. German academic and researcher Professor Claudia Witt has been responsible for a number of excellent papers on homeopathy and in this, she and co-workers drew data from 103 Swiss and German homeopathic medicine clinics in an effort to determine the level of change to the health status of patients over periods of 2 and 8 years, as a result of homeopathic intervention, over these times. Data was collected from 3709 patients who were asked to assess the level of change to the severity of their medical complaints and quality of life, at the time of first consultation, at 2 years, and at 8 years from that point. The data from adults and children were assessed separately and the former experienced an average reduction in disease severity from 6.2 at baseline to 2.9 at 2 years to 2.2 at 8 years. For children, a reduction from a baseline disease severity of 6.1 to 2.1 at 2 years was noted and then to 1.7 at 8 years. Physical and mental quality of life scores for both groups increased significantly over the study period and interestingly, researchers found that, within the confines of this study, the younger the patient and the more severe the medical condition, the better the potential for the therapeutic success of homeopathy.
  141. Wolf M, Tamaschke C, Mayer W, Heger M. Efficacy of Arnica in varicose vein surgery: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2003 Oct;10(5):242-7. In this trial homeopathic Arnica D12 (12X) was compared to placebo, to determine its effect on the size and pain of bruising after surgery. Arnica was used once prior to surgery and then 3 times a day for 2 weeks after surgery. 60 people participated in the trial and on completion it was found that Arnica reduced the size of the bruising by 76% compared to 72% for placebo and pain was reduced by 43% from arnica and by 28% from the placebo.
  142. Yakir M, Kreitler S, et al. Homoeopathic Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome. British Homoeopathic Journal, July, 1995, 84, 182-183. In a double blind randomised placebo controlled trial carried out in an Israeli hospital, 19 women suffering from clinically diagnosed PMS were treated with individualised homoeopathy or placebo. The homoeopathic treatment provided significant improvement over placebo.
  143. Yakir M, Kreitler S, Brzezinski A, Vithoulkas G, Oberbaum M, Bentwich Z. Effects of Homeopathic Treatment in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome: a Pilot Study. British Homoeopathic Journal, 2001, 90, 148-153. 20 women suffering from PMS were enrolled into this randomised, controlled, double-blind trial to receive one of 5 symptomatically selected homeopathic remedies, or placebo. Using daily menstrual distress scores before and at the end of the trial, improvement greater than 30% was experienced by 90% of those using the homeopathic medicine and 37.5% of those using the placebo.
  144. Zambrano OC. The Effects of a Complex Homoeopathic Preparation on Aerobic Resistance, Aerobic Capacity, Strength and Flexibility. Biomedical Therapy, 2000, 18, 1, 172- 175. 25 people were assessed before and after exercise for the effects of a homoeopathic combination (Rendimax) on their cellular oxygenation rate, lactate accumulation, and recovery time after exercise. These were compared with the same parameters for 25 people who had undergone the same exercise regime without the use of this medication. Those using the homoeopathic combination exhibited improvement in all parameters measured.
  145. Zell J, Connert WG, Mau J, Feuerstake G. Treatment of Acute Sprains of the Ankle. Biological Therapy, 7, 1, 1989, 106. Under double blind placebo controlled trial conditions, patients using an ointment containing homoeopathic ingredients for soft tissue injury found significant relief with the medicine when compared to the effects of placebo. Animal studies
  1. Aboiutboul R. Snake remedies and eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats. Homeopathy, 2006 January, 95, 1, 15-19. An Israeli veterinary clinic compiled case records involving Eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) in cats taken over an 8 year period. 20 cases of the condition were seen during this period and details of 15 of these cases were recorded. EGC is a syndrome characterised by lesions affecting the skin and the oral cavity. Conventional treatment is mainly symptomatic and may have undesirable side effects. The cases recorded involved the use of homeopathic snake remedies (the most frequently used being Lachesis) and in all 15 cases, reactions were mostly quick, leading to significant improvements, including complete recoveries.
  2. Banerjee P, Bhattacharyya SS, Pathak S, Naoual B, Belon P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Comparative Efficacy of Two Microdoses of a Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Arsenicum album, to Ameliorate Toxicity Induced by Repeated Sublethal Injections of Arsenic trioxide in Mice. Pathobiology. 2008;75(3):156-70. This subject has had previous attention by Datta, Kundu and others, and in this randomised controlled trial, 6C and 30C homeopathic potencies of Arsenicum album (Arsenic trioxide) were given to mice prior to exposure to material doses of arsenic trioxide, as a means of determining whether or not the potentised Arsenicum album had any influence on the effects of arsenic. Mice were divided into 6 groups with 1 group receiving 6C Arsenicum album, another group receiving 30C Arsenicum album, and the remaining 4 groups receiving various control substances. Cellular and various biochemical parameters such as acid and alkaline phosphatases, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, glutathione, lipid peroxidation, catalase and succinate dehydrogenase were assessed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days from the beginning of the study. On analysis of these results it was found that both the 6C and 30C potencies of Arsenicum album provided protection against the effects of arsenic trioxide, with the 30C providing a slightly better level of protection than the 6C.
  3. Bhattacharjee N, Pathak S, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Amelioration of Carcinogen-Induced Toxicity in Mice by Administration of a Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Natrum Sulphuricum 200. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009, 6, 1, 65-75. Researchers at India's University of Kalyani, expanding on work that had been previously been done in area, designed a trial to discover whether or not the homeopathic product, Nat sulph 200C was able to protect mice against the effects of liver carcinogens, when compared to controls. Using various enzyme assays and other tests to determine the effects of the product, Nat sulph 200C was found to reduce genomic and other carcinogenic effects as well as liver tumor formation caused by hepatocarcinigens, and to also increase the in-vivo levels of glutathione.
  4. Berchieri A Jr, Turco WC, Paiva JB, et al. Evaluation of isopathic treatment of Salmonella enteritidis in poultry. Homeopathy. 2006 Apr, 95, 2, 94-7. 180 chickens were divided into 4 groups. 2 of these groups were given pre-treatment with placebo and 2 were given different pre-treatment with preparations of a homeopathic nosode made from an antibiotic resistant strain of Salmonella enterica (Enteritidis) at a 30X potency, over a 10 day period. On day 17 the chickens were challenged with a culture of the same species of Salmonella from which the nosode was made. Cloacal swabs taken twice daily from the chickens at this point revealed that the birds that received the nosode showed a reduction in the growth of the bacteria compared to those given placebo.
  5. Biswas SJ, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Evaluation of protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Chelidonium majus, during azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2004, Jul, 42, 7, 698-714. In this study, groups of mice were given substances that would normally be expected to induce the formation of liver cancer. At the same time, selected groups of these mice were given either homeopathic Chelidonium in 30C or 200C potencies or a placebo control. Both potencies of chelidonium provided a significant protective effect against the formation of liver cancers and favourably modulated some of the haematological markers normally associated with hepatotoxicity.
  6. Biswas SJ, Pathak S, Bhattacharjee N, Das JK, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Efficacy of the potentized homeopathic drug, Carcinosin 200, fed alone and in combination with another drug, Chelidonium 200, in amelioration of p-dimethylaminoazobenzene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct;11(5):839-54. Mice suffering from liver cancers were given either homeopathic Carcinosin 200C, or a combination of Carcinosn 200C and Chelidonium 200C over a period of 120 days, and the ability of these to ameliorate the cancers was compared to the effects of potentised alcohol over the same period of time. After the results were analysed it was found that both of the homeopathic remedies were effective in ameliorating these cancers. In addition, they were both individually effective in protecting against the development of any further hepatocarcinogenesis and the combination of the 2 homeopathic medicines were slightly more so.
  7. Cazin JC, Cazin M, Gaborit JL, et al. A Study of the Effect of Decimal and Centessimal Dilutions of Arsenic on the Retention and Mobilisation of Arsenic in the Rat. Human Toxicol, 1987, 6, 315-320. Radioactively labelled arsenious anhydride was administered to 60 rats. The rats were then given various homeopathic potencies (10X to 30X and 5C to 15C) of arsenicum album or a potentised water control. All of the potencies successfully increased the excretion rate of the radio-labelled arsenious anhydride when compared with the control, with the highest level of excretion being produced by the 14X and 7C potencies.
  8. Chakrabarti J, Biswas SJ, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Cytogenetical Effects of Sonication in Mice and their Modulations by Actinomycin D and a Homeopathic drug, Arnica 30. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 2001, December, 39, 12, 1235-42. Mice were exposed to ultrasonication (high frequency shaking) and assessed for the effects of the unltrasonication after the administration of either Arnica 30 or Actinomycin D. These interventions were assessed against controls for parameters such as chromosome aberrations, mitotic index, sperm head anomaly and micronucleated erythrocytes. In comparison the control mice, the mice that were given Arnica 30, had appreciably reduced effects from the ultrasonication, indicating that Arnica 30 can ameliorate the cellular and subcellular damage resulting from this form of physical trauma.
  9. Chaudhuri S, Varshney JP Clinical management of babesiosis in dogs with homeopathic Crotalus horridus 200C. Homeopathy. 2007 Apr;96(2):90-4. Babesiosis is a protozoal disease suffered by dogs. It's associated with infestation by Babesia gibsoni and is normally transmitted by ticks. In this clinical case comparison the effects of Crotalus horridus 200C on dogs suffering from this condition were compared with the effects of the standard pharmaceutical treatment, diminazine aceturate. At 18 days after the medications were given results were assessed and on the clinical scores for the various symptoms produced by the dogs in response to the protozoa, it was found that Crotalus horridus 200C provided the same level of clinical recovery from the illness as did diminazine aceturate.
  10. Datta S, Mallick P, Bukhsh AR. Efficacy of a potentized homoeopathic drug (Arsenicum album-30) in reducing genotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: II. Comparative efficacy of an antibiotic, actinomycin D alone and in combination with either of two microdoses. Complement Ther Med. 1999 Sep;7(3):156-63. This study, carried out at the University of Kalyani in India's West Bengal, was part of an ongoing series of trials looking at the use of homeopathically potentised arsenic to protect against the effects of exposure to material doses of arsenic, this latter being a serious health issue in several parts of India and elsewhere. The efficacy of Arsenicum album 30C and 200C have already been demonstrated to be effective against the toxicity from arsenic in previous experiments and in this particular study, the influence of the DNA transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D, on the protective effects of the homeopathic medicines was assessed. Compared to controls it was found that the use of the actinomycin D did inhibit the protective effects of Arsenicum album 30C and 200C against arsenic toxicity.
  11. Datta SS, Mallick PP, Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh AA. Comparative efficacy of two microdoses of a potentized homoeopathic drug, Cadmium sulphoricum, in reducing genotoxic effects produced by cadmium chloride in mice: a time course study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2001;1:9. In a similar study to that described above, researchers again tested the hypothesis that the homeopathically potentised version of a potentially toxic substance could protect against the effects of the substance from which it's derived. In this case, the protective effects of homeopathic Cadmium sulph 30C and 200C were used in an attempt to control the genotoxic effects of cadmium in mice exposed to this element. When the results of this study were analysed it was found that the homeopathic medicine did provide a statistically significant protective action against the effects of cadmium.
  12. Daurat V, Dorfman P, Bastide M. Immunomodulatory activity of low doses of interferon alpha,beta in mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 1988;42(3):197-206. This was a placebo controlled study designed to ascertain what effects, if any, divided doses of interferon alpha,beta, potentised to 10X, had on specific immune responses of mice, in particular the cytotoxic activity of allospecific T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells. The authors of the study found that, compared to the controls, mice given Interferon alpha,beta 10X produced a statistically significant increase in all of the specific immune response variables measured.
  13. Day C. Stillbirth in Pigs. Veterinary Record, 1984, 9114, 216. 20 sows were randomly assigned to receive either homeopathic Caullophyllum 30C or placebo, to determine if the former had any affect on reducing the number of stillbirths experienced by these sows. On analysis, it was found that the sows given Caulophyllum had a stillbirth rate of 11.5%, and those given placebo had a rate of 26%, showing quite clearly that the homeopathic medicine successfully reduced the rate of stillbirths.
  14. de Paula Coelho C, D'Almeida V, Pedrazzolli-Neto M, Duran-Filho C, Florio JC, Zincaglia LM, Bonamin LV. Therapeutic and pathogenetic animal models for Dolichos pruriens. Homeopathy. 2006 Jul, 95, 3, 136-43. This study was designed to determine the effect of various homeopathic potencies of Dolichos pruriens on artificially induced itch in laboratory rats, and also to determine if these potencies could elicit a proving effect in normal rats. In the first part of this study (performed blind) the rats with the induced itch were given ascending potencies of the remedy over a 30 day period and the results compared to placebo controls. It was found that all potencies of the remedy provided a therapeutic effect against the induced itch. In the second part of the study, also performed blind, no proving effects were seen.
  15. Dos Santos AL, Perazzo FF, Cardoso LG, Carvalho JC. In vivo study of the anti-inflammatory effect of Rhus toxicodendron. Homeopathy. 2007 Apr;96(2):95-101. This study was essentially designed to do 2 things; to determine which homeopathic potency of Rhus tox provides the most effective anti-inflammatory action, and to reconfirm the results of previous studies aimed at demonstrating any anti-inflammatory effect of Rhus tox. Of 6C, 12C, 30C and 200C potencies of this remedy, 6C was found to provide the highest level of activity, and, using an in-vivo inflammation model, researchers confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of the remedy by interfering with inflammatory processes involving histamine, prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators, when compared with controls.
  16. Eizayaga FX, Aguejouf O, Belon P, et al. Platelet aggregation in portal hypertension and its modification by ultra-low doses of aspirin. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2005;34(1):29-34. Researchers in this controlled study attempted to determine the effects of potentised aspirin on rats exhibiting reduced platelet aggregation associated with portal hypertension. Given that material doses of aspirin are known to be associated with a reduction in platelet aggregation, one of the aims of the study was to confirm that the reverse of this would be the case with if potentised aspirin were used. The researchers did, in fact, confirm this in their results which showed that, compared to controls, Aspirin 14C normalised deficiencies in platelet aggregation in the rats involved in this study.
  17. Endler PC, et al. Pretreatment with Thyroxine 10-8 Enhances a Curative Effect of Homeopathically prepared Thyroxine 10-13 on Lowland Frogs. Forschende Komplementarmedizin Und Klassiche Naturheikunde, 2003, 10, 137-42. In this randomised, placebo-controlled trial carried out simultaneously by 3 independent researchers, tadpoles were exposed to an equivalent of a 13X potency of thyroxine. This hormone, normally responsible for promoting metamorphosis, was found to inhibit this process when potentised into a homeopathic medicine.
  18. Epstein OI, Pavlov IF, Shtark MB. Improvement of Memory by Means of Ultra-Low Doses of Antibodies to S-100B Antigen. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2006 December, 3, 4, 541-545. Antigen S-100B of nervous tissue affects the mechanisms of nervous system plasticity and memory. In this trial, 28 rats were given either a placebo, or Antigen S-100B, at a 6C potency to determine the effect of either on three learning behavioral models; inhibitory avoidance, choosing of bowls with sucrose, and feeding behavior cessation after auditory signal. For all three tasks, parameters of reproduction of the learned skills improved after per oral administration of potentiated antibodies to S-100B antigen immediately after learning when compared to placebo.
  19. Graunke H, Endler PC, Scherer-Pongratz W, Spranger H, Frass M, Lothaller H. Treatment of lowland frogs from the spawn stage with homeopathically prepared thyroxin (10(-30)). Scientific World Journal. 2007 Oct 22;7:1697-702. In this project, performed at the Interuniversity College for Health and Development in Graz, Austria, lowland frog spawn were exposed to thyroxine potentised to 30C to determine the effect, if any, of this remedy of the development of the spawn into 2 and then 4 legged frogs, when compared to controls. It would be normal for the development of frog spawn to be accelerated by exposure to material levels of thyroxine. In this instance, exposure to 30C thyroxine produced a statistically significant reduction in the speed of development from spawn to 4 legged lowland fogs.
  20. Guajardo-Bernal G., Searcy-Bernal R., Soto-Avila J. Growth Promoting Effect of Sulphur 201C in Pigs. British Homoeopathic Journal, January, 1996, 85, 15-16. In a blind, placebo-controlled trial, Sulphur 201C was given to pregnant sows every 10 days, and extending into the feeding period after birth. By day 30 the piglets fed by the sows given the active remedy exhibited a higher final weight, mean total and daily weight gain, indicating that not only was the remedy effective, but that its effects were transmitted through the sows milk.
  21. Herkovits J, Perez-Coll CS. Could Potentized Microdoses of Cadmium change the Toxicological Effect of this Heavy Metal? Berlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, Report from the 4th Giri Symposium, 1991, June, 1, 3, 171. Toad embryos were exposed to Cadmium in 4X, 8X and 10X potencies. Either immediately or 24 hours later, the embryos were exposed to a (normally lethal) solution equivalent to 1mg/l of Cadmium. Both on immediate and delayed exposure, the potencies of cadmium exerted a statistically significant protective effect against the actions of the cadmium solution.
  22. Jonas WB, Gaddipati JP, Rajeshkumar NV, et al. Can homeopathic treatment slow prostate cancer growth? Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Dec;5(4):343-9. This US study examined the effects of the homeopathic remedies Thuja, Sabal, Conium and Carcinosin (made from the specific prostate cancer cell line used in this trial) in vitro on prostate cancer cell cultures and in vivo on 100 rats, all of which were suffering from prostate cancer. A double blind randomised design was used for this latter part of the study. The rats were given all 4 homeopathic medicines on a sequential basis over a period of 5 weeks. The in vitro part of the study, carried out over a period of 96 hours and assessed according to tumor cell viability and gene expression, showed that the cancer cell lines were unaffected by the homeopathic medicines. When the researchers assessed the results from the in vivo aspect of the study, it was found that, compared to the controls, the rats given the homeopathic medicines showed a 23% reduction in tumor incidence and a 38% reduction in the size of prostate tumors.
  23. Kumar KH, Sunila ES, Kuttan G, et al. Inhibition of chemically induced carcinogenesis by drugs used in homeopathic medicine. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007 Jan-Mar;8(1):98-102. In this study, carried out at the Amala Cancer Research Centre in India's Kerala State, rats and mice were treated for the development of liver tumors using homeopathic Hydrastis, Lycopodium, Phosphorus, Ruta or Thuja. Assessment was made on the basis of the development of tumors and their corresponding biochemical markers such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in the serum and in liver. Of the 5 medicines tested, Ruta (in a 200C potency) and Phosphorous (in a 1M potency) provided the most benefit.
  24. Kuzeff RM, Mecheva RP, Topashka-Ancheva MN. Inhibition of (-)-propranolol hydrochloride by its enantiomer in white mice--a placebo-controlled randomized study. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004 Feb;11(1):14-9. Researchers in this trial from Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne examined the effects on toxicity from (S)-(-)-propranolol hydrochloride of a homoeopathically prepared optical isomer version of the same substance. When used in mice prior to exposure to (S)-(-)-propranolol hydrochloride, a remedy made from (R)-(-)-propranolol hydrochloride was found to reduce the toxicity resulting from its isomer.
  25. Labrecque G., Guilleminot J. Effect of Bryonia on Experimental Arthritis in Rats. Berlin Journal of Research in Homoeopathy, 1, 3, 1991, 169, (Congress Report Poster). In this study, 35 male rats suffering from arthritis were treated with placebo or 4X, 4C or 9C potencies of homeopathic Bryonia for 15 days and assessed at various stages using grip strength body weight as assessment criteria. At the end of the treatment period, all of the Bryonia potencies had improved the condition when compared to placebo, with Bryonia 4C providing the best outcomes.
  26. Lingg G, Endler PC, Frass M, Lothaller H. Treatment of Highland Frogs from the Two-legged stage with Homeopathically prepared Thyroxin (10-11 - 10-21). Scientific World Journal. 2008 Apr 20;8:446-50. Researchers working in Austria conducted this study to determine the effects of thyroxine, homeopathically potentised to 11X and 21X, on the metamorphosis rates of highland frogs (Rana temporaria) when compared to controls. The assessment of the effects of these remedies was done on the basis of the number of 2 legged tadpoles that develop into frogs with 4 legs over fixed periods of time. 90 animals in all acted as the subjects in this trial. As would be expected, given that thyroxine would stimulate development, thyroxine 11X and 21X, when compared to controls, were found to suppress the development of tadpoles into frogs over the observation period.
  27. Macedo SB, Ferreira LR, Perazzo FF, Carvalho JC. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals. Homeopathy. 2004 Apr;93(2):84-7. Researchers in this study evaluated the protective effect of Arnica 6C on the acute inflammatory effects in mice of carregeenin and the chronic inflammatory effects of Nystatin. Arnica was given prior to the induction of both forms of inflammation and it was found to provide a protective effect against Nystatin, but not carrageenin induced inflammation.
  28. MacLaughlin BW, Gutsmuths B, Pretner E, et al. Effects of homeopathic preparations on human prostate cancer growth in cellular and animal models. Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Dec;5(4):362-72.To confirm the effectiveness of the homeopathic treatment of prostate cancer, the researchers in this trial assessed the effects of the homeopathic medicines Sabal serrulata, Conium maculatum and Thuja occidentalis against PC-3 and DU-145 human prostate cancer cell cultures and against the growth of prostate tumors in mice. Sabal reduced the proliferation of the PC-3 cell line by 33% in 72 hours and the DU-145 cell line by 23% in 24 hours. Compared to controls, Sabal also had a statistically significant effect on the tumors suffered by mice. The homeopathic medicines Conium maculatum and Thuja occidentalis showed no beneficial effect on the proliferation of the cell lines or tumors observed in this study.
  29. Mallick P, Mallick JC, Guha B, Khuda-Bukhsh AR Ameliorating effect of microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album, on arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2003 Oct 22;3(1):7. In this study, Indian researchers using mice as a model for the management of human arsenic toxicity from drinking contaminated groundwater in rural India, assessed the toxicity from arsenic in mice pretreated with homoeopathic Arsenicum album 30C and 200C. When compared to controls, the homoeopathic remedies were found to reduce experimentally induced arsenic toxicity.
  30. Mathie RT, Hansen L, Elliott MF, Hoare J. Outcomes from homeopathic prescribing in veterinary practice: a prospective, research-targeted, pilot study. Homeopathy. 2007 Jan;96(1):27-34. In this cohort study, 8 veterinarians trained in homeopathy collected clinical case outcome data over a 6 month period for animals treated by them using homeopathic medicines. The records for 767 consecutive patients were collected and the results analysed via an owner- assessed 7-point scale which compared the condition before and after homeopathic treatment. These patients consisted of 547 dogs, 155 cats, 50 horses, 5 rabbits, 4 guinea-pigs, 2 birds, 2 goats, 1 cow, and 1 tortoise. The results from 539 cases were amenable to analysis and from these an improvement was seen in 79.8% of the animals, 6.1% of animals experienced a deterioration of their condition and 11.7% had no response to treatment.
  31. Oberbaum M, Weissman Z, Bentwich Z. Treatment of Murine SLE by Idiotype Isotherapy. Berlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, Congress Report, 1991, June, 1, 3, 168. Using the knowledge that Systemic Lupus Erythrematosis (SLE) is induced by anti-DNA idiotype 16/6, homoeopathic potencies were made of this material and it was administered to mice suffering from SLE. When compared to controls, 100% of the mice treated with the 30X potency of the idiotype had a positive response to the treatment.
  32. Pathak S, Kumar Das J, Biswas S, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium-30, in ameliorating azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Apr;285(1-2):121-31. The researchers in this study, which was carried out at the University of Kalyani in India's West Bengal, used 210 mice in an experiment to determine the protective effect of Lycopodium 30C against the carcinogenic effects of p-dimethyl amino azo benzene and phenobarbital. When assessed using chomosomal aberrations as well as several morphological and biochemical parameters at 120 days from the beginning of the experiment, it was confirmed that Lycopodium 30C not only exhibited a protective effect, but also a restorative effect against the action of p-dimethyl amino azo benzene and phenobarbital.
  33. Pedalino C.M.V., Perazzo F.F., Carvalho J.C.T., Matinho K.S., Massoco C. de O, Bonamin L.V. Effect of Atropa belladonna and Echinacea angustifolia in homeopathic dilution on experimental peritonitis. Homeopathy, 2004, 93, 193-198. 36 mice with experimentally induced peritonitis were given either echinacea angustifolia 4X, a combination of belladonna and echinacea in mixed homeopathic potencies, a combination of echinacea in mixed potencies , 2 separate combinations of belladonna in mixed potencies, or a control substance, and their progress was monitored over time. Outcomes were measured using polymorphnuclear cell migration, mononuclear cell percentages, degenerate leucocyte proportions and phagocytosis characteristics. All of the homeopathic test substances produced positive outcomes with the belladonna and echinacea potency combination providing the maximal increase in polymorphnuclear cell migration and phagocytosis.
  34. Rajkumar R, Srivastava SK, Yadav MC, Varshney VP, Varshney JP, Kumar H. Effect of a Homeopathic complex on oestrus induction and hormonal profile in anoestrus cows. Homeopathy. 2006 Jul, 95, 3, 131-5. From a group of 12 anoestrus cows, 6 were selected to receive treatment with a combination of homeopathic medicines, given as 15 pills twice daily for 10 days. The remaining 6 cows acted as untreated controls. The treatment was effective in inducing oestrus in all of the 6 treated cows with an average of 1 conception per 1.83 services. In addition, the researchers found that oestradiol levels in the treated cows almost doubled from pre-treatment levels. Treatment results were seen at a mean interval of 27.5+/-5.3 days.
  35. Reis LS, Pardo PE, Oba E, Kronka Sdo N, Frazatti-Gallina NM. Matricaria chamomilla CH12 decreases handling stress in Nelore calves. J Vet Sci. 2006 Jun;7 (2):189-92. In this study, 60 Nelore calves were randomly assigned to receive either Chamomilla 12C or no Chamomilla 12C in their feed. Following this they were subjected to short periods of handling stress after which blood samples were taken to assess their cortisol levels. After the results from the 2 groups had been compared, it was found the calves given Chamomilla 12C had significantly lower levels of blood cortisol than those that did not, indicating that they were better able to deal with stress as a result of ingestion of the homeopathic medicine.
  36. Ruiz- Vega G, Perez- Ordaz L, Proa- Flores P, Aguilar- Diaz Y. An Evaluation of Coffea cruda effect on Rats. British Homeopathic Journal, 2000, 89, 122-126. This study tested the effects of Coffea 30C versus placebo on the sleep patterns of rats assessed using EEG readings. The results showed a statistically significant effect consistent with increased sleeping activity in those rats given the active medicine.
  37. Ruiz-Vega G, Perez-Ordaz L, Leon-Hueramo O, Cruz-Vasquez E, Sanchez-Diaz N. Comparitive Effect of Coffea cruda Potencies on Rats. Homeopathy, 2002, 91, 80-84. 30C and 200C potencies of Coffea cruda and caffeine were administered orally to rats, and EEG data from the parietal region recorded. When compared with control animals, Coffea 30C and 200C were associated with changes in EEG patterns that were consistent with increased sleep activity.
  38. Ruiz-Vega G, Perez-Ordaz L, Cotez-Galvan L, Juarez-GFM. A Kinetic Approach to Caffeine- Coffea cruda Interaction. Homeopathy, 2003, 92, 19-29. In this blinded and controlled study, rats were given caffeine and then Coffea 30C in an effort to determine what effects, if any, the Coffea 30C had on sleep characteristics. The homoeopathic remedy was found to increase the intensity of sleep in the rats when compared with the effects of the control used.
  39. Ruiz-Vega G, Poitevin B, Perez-Ordaz L. Histamine at high dilution reduces spectral density in delta band in sleeping rats. Homeopathy. 2005 Apr, 94, 2, 86-91. Histamine in material doses is a central nervous system stimulant operating via H1 receptors. The researchers in this study examined the effects of histamine in 30C homeopathic potency on the sleep patterns of rats. Using the spectral density of the delta band in the sleep electroencephalogram to measure the effects of the remedy, which is higher during periods on non-REM sleep, researchers found that histamine 30C produced an increase in wakefulness when compared to controls.
  40. Sakakura CE, Neto RS, Bellucci M, Wenzel A, Scaf G, Marcantonio E Jr. Influence of Homeopathic Treatment with Comfrey on Bone Density around Titanium Implants: A Digital Subtraction Radiography Study in Rats. Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2008 Jun;19(6):624-8. This controlled trial looked at populations of rats to discover what influence, if any, Symphytum 6C had on improving the density of bone around recent titanium implants. Implants were given to 2 groups of 24 rats; one group was given 10 drops of Symphytum 6C per day and the other was given a similar amount of a control substance. Animals were radiologically assessed for bone density around the implants at the beginning of the study period, and again at 7, 14 and 28 days. Radiographs taken at day 7 showed an increase in bone density over controls, although no statistically significant effect was seen for the radiographs taken on days 14 and 28.
  41. Sato DYO, Wal R, de Oliveira CC, Cattaneo RI, Malvezzi M, Gabardo J, Buchi D. de F. Histopathological and immunophenotyping studies on normal and sarcoma 180-bearing mice treated with a complex homeopathic medication. Homeopathy, 2005, Jan, 94, 1, 26-32. 55 mice with experimentally induced sarcomas were given placebo or a homeopathic combination product, and observed daily over a period of 21 days. Compared to those receiving placebo, the mice being given the homeopathic combination showed a reduction in tumor size, an increased infiltration by lymphoid cells, granulation tissue and fibrosis surrounding the tumor, all of which are indicative of a positive response to the medicine.
  42. Sukul A., Sinhabau S.P., Sukul N.C., Reduction of Alcohol Induced Sleep time in albino mice by Potentised Nux vomica prepared with 90% Ethanol. British Homoeopathic Journal, 88, 1999, 58-61. In a controlled experiment to determine the effect of Nux vomica 30C on alcohol induced sleep, mice that had sleep induced via an injection of 25% ethanol were given a control substance or Nux vomica 30C. Nux vomica 30C prepared in 90% ethanol was effective in reducing sleep time.
  43. Sukul NC, Ghosh S, Sinhababu SP, Sukul A. Strychnos nux vomica extract and its ultra high dilution reduce voluntary ethanol intake in rats. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2001, April, 7, 2, 187-193. In an attempt to determine the effect of homeopathic Nux vomica on alcoholism, potentially alcoholic laboratory rats housed in the Visva-Bharati University in West Bengal, India, after being divided into 4 groups, were given a choice of drinking from bottles containing either 20% ethanol in water or plain water. The rats were given diluent, or strychnine, or nux vomica tincture, or nux vomica 30C. When compared to the control group (diluent only) both the nux vomica tincture and nux vomica 30C groups of rats showed a distinct aversion to the 20% ethanol drinking bottle.
  44. Sukul NC, Ghosh S, Sinhababu SP. Reduction in the number of infective Trichinella spiralis larvae in mice by use of homeopathic drugs. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005 Aug, 12, 4, 202-5. Trichinellosis, a disease caused by Trichinella spiralis, which occurs in humans and animals, was the subject of this trial. Mice infected with this organism were given Podophyllum as a homeopathic mother tincture, Cina 30C, Santonin 30C, or ethanol 30C as a control substance. After 120 days the mice were examined for the presence of the T. spiralis larvae and this was compared with the larval load before therapy. At 120 days the mice given Podophyllum had their larval load reduced by 61% when compared to the control, those given Santonin had a reduction of 81% and the mice given Cina had a reduction of 84%.
  45. Varshney JP, Naresh R. Evaluation of a homeopathic complex in the clinical management of udder diseases of riverine buffaloes. Homeopathy. 2004 Jan;93(1):17-20. Indian researchers involved in this trial developed a homoeopathic complex against mastitis and tested it, without placebo controls, with 102 riverine buffaloes suffering from various levels of mastitis. The treatment was deemed to be 80 to 97% effective against the disease, depending on the severity of the condition.
  46. Varshney JP, Naresh R. Comparative efficacy of homeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine in the management of clinical mastitis of Indian dairy cows. Homeopathy. 2005, 94, 2, 81-5. Bovine mastitis is a serious problem in India and for many Indian dairy farmers, standard veterinary treatment, because of its cost, is not a viable option. With this in mind, researchers treated 96 lactating dairy cattle suffering from mastitis using a homeopathic combination product (Group A). These were compared with a group of the same number of lactating dairy cattle suffering from mastitis that were treated with antibiotics (Group B). The treatment outcomes, duration and costs were then compared. Cattle from Group A had a successful treatment response rate of 86.6%, a mean time to recovery of 7.7 days and a total cost of (US) 47 cents. Cattle from Group B had a successful treatment response rate of 59.2%, a mean time to recovery of 4.5 days and a total cost of (US) $3.28.
  47. Varshney JP. Clinical management of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs with homeopathic Belladonna 200C: a case series. Homeopathy. 2007 January, 96, 1, 46-48. In this uncontrolled study, 10 dogs suffering from idiopathic epilepsy were given 3-4 drops of homeopathic Belladonna 200C during the seizure phase orally at 15min intervals until the seizure activity was reduced, and this was continued then four times daily. Four dogs with head shaking syndrome in addition to seizures were given an additional Cocculus 6C, 3-4 drops orally weekly for 3 months. As a result of this therapy, the numbers of fits reduced to 2-3 during first 2 weeks post-therapy and then became occasional in next 2 weeks. With continuation of Belladonna therapy, no fits were observed during 2-7 months follow-up. In two cases seizures reappeared within 15-25 days of cessation of therapy. Belladonna therapy was resumed and seizure control was again achieved. Owners were advised to continue the therapy at least twice daily until no fits occurred for at least 2 months.
  48. Varshney JP, Chaudhuri S. Atrial paroxysmal tachycardia in dogs and its management with homeopathic Digitalis--two case reports. Homeopathy. 2007 Oct;96(4):270-2. Homeopathically prepared Digitalis 6C is a common prescription for those suffering from atrial tachycardia. This paper reports on the effects of Digitalis 6C, given at the Division of Medicine of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute in Izatnagar in India, to a Labrador dog and a German Shepherd dog, both of which were suffering from atrial paroxysmal tachycardia. Both dogs were given 4 drops of the medicine 4 times daily and their ECGs were assessed after 7 days of continuous treatment. At this point it was found that the heart rates of both dogs was stabilised and synchronized, with atrial and ventricular electrical activity appearing to be functioning normally.
  49. Viriato EP, Bianchetti ES, dos Santos KC, Vaz AF, Campos RMV, Pereira AP, Bezerra RM, Perazzo FF, Carvalho JCT. Study of high dilutions of copaiba oil on inflammatory process. Int J High Dilution Res 2009; 8(26): 9-149. This trial was a collaborative effort by researchers from several Brazilian universities and was designed to test the hypothesis that Copaiba oil, homeopathically potentised to 30C from either mother tincture or triturate, is as effective as Indomethacin in reducing inflammation induced by carageenan, and also to determine if it was capable of influencing tissue granulation when compared to conventional treatment. The 30C potency from mother tincture and triturate both reduced inflammation by up to 73%, and Indomethacin reduced inflammation by 55%. In addition, 6C potencies of Copaiba oil were able to produce a 48% inhibition of granulation, compared to a 57% reduction from the use of Dexamethasone.
  50. Williamson AV, Mackie WL, Crawford WJ, Rennie B. A Trial of Sepia 200. British Homeopathic Journal, 84, 1, January 1995, 14-20. Using a randomised placebo control method, Sepia 200C was assessed for its ability to increase reproductive performance in a herd of Fresian cross diary cows. Sepia increased all parameters measured. Plant studies
  1. Baumgartner S., Thurneysen A., Heusser P. Growth stimulation of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L.) through homeopathic potencies of plant growth substances. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004, Oct,11, 5,:281-92. In an effort to determine the effects of homeopathically potentised plant growth substances on the shoot growth characteristics of dwarf peas, plant cultures were immersed for 24 hours in solutions containing 4 different plant growth substances in 12X to 30X potencies. These were compared to cultures grown in a control substance. At shoot length measurement after a 14 day growth period, the cultures grown in the potentised growth substances showed a measurable effect on the seed growth characteristics when compared to the control substance, the most notable of these, gibberellin 17X, producing the largest growth stimulation.
  2. Baumgartner S, Shah D, Schaller J, Kampfer U, Thurneysen A, Heusser P. Reproducibility of dwarf pea shoot growth stimulation by homeopathic potencies of gibberellic acid. Complement Ther Med. 2008 Aug;16(4):183-91. In this Swiss study, which was slight variation of previous work done in this area by Hamman and others, dwarf pea seedlings in 4 batches containing seeds taken from adult plants in 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000, were exposed to 17X and 18X potencies of Gibberellic acid (GA) and cultivated under controlled conditions, alongside dwarf pea seedlings that had received the same level of exposure to 2 negative control substances. GA in material doses is often used commercially to break periods of dormancy in seeds and has the capacity to stimulate the growth of seedlings and it's an endogenous component of some seeds and is involved in the growth of seeds and alpha amylase activity within the plant.. After 14 days all of these seedlings had their lengths measured and at this point it was found that the controls had performed as predicted, the 1997 seedling batch previously exposed to GA 17X and GA 18X had exceeded the growth rate of the controls by an average of 11.2% and the 1998 batch responded with a mixture of either stimulation or suppression of growth. Batches from 1999 and 2000 failed to respond to either potency of GA.
  3. Binder M, Baumgartner S, Thurneysen A. The effects of a 45x potency of arsenicum album on wheat seedling growth -- a reproduction trial. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005 Oct, 12, 5, 284-91. In a repeat performance of the previous trial, wheat seedlings previously exposed to sub-lethal doses arsenic were cultivated in either Arsenicum album 45X, water 45X or un-potentised water, and the seedling height measured at 7 days. The experiment was independently reproduced 8 times and after the results were collated the wheat seedlings cultivated in Arsenicum 45X showed a significant reduction in height when compared to the 2 controls.
  4. Bornoroni C. Synergism of Action between Indolacetic Acid and Highly Diluted Solutions of Calc carb on the Growth of Oat Celeoptiles. Berlin J on Res in Hom, 1, 4/5, December 1991, 275-278. This study demonstrated that Calc carb 5X significantly increased the growth stimulating effects of the plant growth stimulant, indole acetic acid.
  5. Brizzi M, Lazzarato L, Nani D, Borghini F, Peruzzi M, Betti L. A biostatistical insight into the As(2)O(3) high dilution effects on the rate and variability of wheat seedling growth. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005 Oct, 12, 5, 277-83. Wheat seedlings previously stressed with sub-lethal doses of arsenic, a substance known to be lethal to this plant, were treated with various potencies of Arsenicum album (5X, 15X, 25X, 35X and 45X), equivalent potencies of water and equivalent un-succussed dilutions of arsenic trioxide. The stem lengths of the seedlings was assessed at day 7 and it was found that the 45X potencies of Arsenicum and the water but not the diluted arsenic trioxide induced an increase in seedling height.
  6. Endler PC, Pongratz W. Homoeopathic Effect of a Plant Hormone? Berlin J on Res in Hom, 1, 3, June, 1991, 148-150. This study showed that Indole Butyric Acid, known at material levels to enhance the growth of new roots and leaves from plant slips, at a 33X potency, continued to provide an enhancement of growth
  7. Jones RL, Jenkins MD. Plant Responses to Homoeopathic Medicines. British Homeopathic Journal, 70, 3, July 1981, 120-146. The authors of this work set out to study the effects of various homeopathic potencies of Silver nitrate on the growth characteristics of the leaf sheaths of wheat. On analysis of the results they found that potencies of silver nitrate were in fact able to either inhibit or stimulate growth, depending upon the potency applied.
  8. Scherr C, Simon M, Spranger J, Baumgartner S. Effects of Potentised Substances on Growth Rate of the water plant Lemna gibba. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2009 Apr;17(2):63-70. Claudia Scherr and colleagues at the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture in Frick, Switzerland, conducted this randomised, controlled and blinded study to determine the extent to which various homeopathically potentised substances could influence the growth of Duckweed (Lemna gibba) when compared to controls. To do this, Duckweed was grown in 14X to 30X homeopathic potencies of Argentum nitricum, Lemna minor and Gibberelic acid (a known plant growth regulator), over a period of 7 days. Measurements were taken over 0-3 days, 3-7 days and 0-7 days. Succussed and un-succussed water controls were used. Neither controls produced any statistically significant effect and the potencies that caused the most pronounced reduction in growth when compared to controls were those of Gibberelic acid, particularly the 15X, 17X, 23X and 24X potencies. In-Vitro Studies
  1. Aziz DM, Enbergs H. Stimulation of bovine sperm mitochondrial activity by homeopathic dilutions of monensin. Homeopathy. 2005 Oct, 94, 4, 229-32. Mitochondrial activity is an important marker for the health of sperm. It's linked to sperm motility and in research laboratories monensin is commonly used as an inhibitor for sperm mitochondrial activity. The researchers in this study examined the effects of the 5X to the 14X homeopathic potencies of monensin on the activity of the mitochondria of sperm taken from mature bulls. All of the potencies produced a stimulatory effect on the bull sperm mitochondrial activity, with the 9X producing the strongest of these effects
  2. Belon P, Cumps J, Ennis M, et al. Inhibition of Human Basophil Degranulation by Successive Histamine Dilutions. Inflammation Research, 48, Supplement 1, 1999, S17-18. In this controversial, blinded multi-centre trial (which confirmed earlier studies published in Nature in 1988), homeopathic potencies of histamine were found to substantially reduce the potential for degranulation by sensitised basophils when exposed to allergens.
  3. Belon P., Cumps J., Ennis M., Mannaioni P.F., Roberfroid M., Sainte-Laudy J., Wiegant F.A. Histamine Dilutions Modulate Basophil Activation. Inflammation Research, 2004, May, 53, 5, 181-8. In this study, which was a replication of work by Jacques Benveniste published in Nature in 1988, the researchers attempted to use homeopathic dilutions of histamine to inhibit the activation of human basophils exposed to an inflammatory mediator. The study was carried out blind in 4 separate laboratories. Histamine dilutions equivalent to 30X and 38X were found to inhibit basophil activation and subsequent histamine release.
  4. Casaroli- Marano RP, Alegre J, Campos B. Infrared Changes in Potentised Solutions. Revista Homeopatica, 1998, 38, 5- 12. In this experiment, 70% alcohol/water solutions were serially diluted 1 in 100 up to 30 times, with and without succussion at each step. On examination of each of these significant spectral differences were found between the solutions that were succussed and those that were not, indicating that dilution and succussion may produce structural changes to the molecules in the solution. This may provide further evidence for the possibility of a "memory" of water.
  5. Chirila M, Hristescu S, Manda G, Neagu M, Olinescu A. The Action of Succussed Substances on the Human Lymphocytes and PMN Granulocytes in Vitro Stimulated with Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and Zymosin Opsonised (ZO). Berlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, Congress Report, 1991, June, 1, 3, 166-167. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were taken from people with a history of allergy to bee products (Group 1), and from people who were immunosuppressed (Group 2). These cells were incubated in culture media supplemented with a succussed water control, various homoeopathic potencies of bee venom (for Group 1 cells), or cortisone (for Group 2 cells), and the cells were grown. The proliferation of Group 1 cells was inhibited by the potencies of bee venom, indicating that these remedies may be useful in the management of allergies to bee products. The effects of the potencies of cortisone on the Group 2 cells varied from stimulation to inhibition.
  6. Chirumbolo S, Signorini A, Bianchi I, Lippe G, Bellavite P. Effects of Homoeopathic Preparations of Organic Acids and Minerals on the Oxidative Metabolism of Human Neutrophils. British Homeopathic Journal, 1993, 82, 237-244. The in vitro adhesion and superoxide production of human neutrophils were monitored in the presence of various homoeopathic medicines. Of these, Sulphur 6X, Manganum phos 6X and 8X, and Magnesium phos 6X and 8X all lead to a 15-30% increase in these parameters.
  7. Delbancut A, Barrouillet MA, Maury-Brachet R, Boudou A, Dorfman P, Cambar J. Mechanistic Approach to the Effect of High Dilutions of Cadmium to Protect from Cytotoxic Cadmium doses in Renal Tubular Cell Cultures. International Research Group on Very Low Dose and High Dilution Effects, 1993 Giri Meeting, BHJ, April, 1994, 83, 84-100 Material concentrations of cadmium have strong toxic effects on renal tubules. The researchers involved in this study found that pre-treatment with homeopathic cadmium 40X, and subsequent exposure to material concentrations of cadmium, led to a significant reduction in cadmium induced damage.
  8. Enbergs H. Effects of the homeopathic preparation Engystol on interferon-gamma production by human T-lymphocytes. Immunol Invest. 2006, 35, 1, 19-27. In one of the few experiments carried out in this area to date, researchers conducting this study collected T-lymphocytes from 30 healthy human volunteers to investigate the ability or otherwise of a homeopathic combination product to increase the production of interferon-gamma from these cells. After exposure to various concentrations of this combination, when compared to control cells, interferon-gamma producing cell levels were increased by a means of 20.9% to over 24% with no dose-dependence of the effect at the concentrations tested.
  9. Fougeray S, Moubry K, Vallot N, Bastide M. Effect of High Dilutions of Epidermal Growth Factor on in-vitro Proliferation of Keratinocyte and Fibroblast Cell Lines. 6th Giri Symposium, Munich, Oct 1992, reported in British Homeopathic Journal, 93, 82. In this experiment, it was shown that 19X and 45X homeopathic potencies of Epidermal Growth Factor inhibited the proliferation of Keratinocyte and Fibroblast Cell Lines.
  10. Fleisbach A, Fejfar V, Spranger J. Effects of Homoeopathic Potencies: Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Potentised Copper Sulphate Dilutions. British Homeopathic Journal, 2000, 89, Supplement 1, S65. Material concentrations of copper sulphate inhibit the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in this study, researchers determined what effect if any a homeopathic medicine made from copper sulphate would have on this organism. On exposure to homeopathically potentised copper sulphate, a potency dependant inhibition or enhancement of growth was seen.
  11. Gebhardt R Antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 cells of a homeopathic remedy and its constituent plant tinctures tested separately or in combination. Arzneimittelforschung. 2003, 53, 12, 823-30. This laboratory study examined the effect of a homeopathic combination product and its separate components for antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects on liver cells grown in laboratory tissue-culture. Protective effects against oxidation of the cells by tert-butyl hydroperoxide were shown by Carduus, China and Nux mosch, and the combination provided the same level of protection as these 3 individual remedies combined. Carduus, Chelidonium, Colocynthis and Veratrum alb all showed an antiproliferative effect against cell proliferation agents on the cells and the combination exhibited the same effect. Carduus and the combination both increased the conjugation effectiveness of glutathione.
  12. Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Fallier-Becker P. Antiviral Action of Euphorbium Compositum and its Componants. Forschende Komplementarmedizin Und Klassiche Naturheikunde, 2001, 8, 207-212. In this in-vitro study, human cell cultures were infected with influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human rhinovirus or herpes simplex virus type1, and then treated with Euphorbium compositum, a homeopathic complex. Various anti-viral drugs such as acyclovir, rabavirin and amatadine were used as positive controls against which to compare the results of the complex. When compared with control cells exposed to the same concentration of ethanol used in the complex, the homeopathic complex showed anti-viral properties comparable to the effects of the drugs against respiratory syncitial virus and herpes simplex virus type 1.
  13. Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Fallier-Becker P, Weiser M. Influence of homeopathically processed Coenzyme Q10 on proliferation and redifferentiation of endothelial cells. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004, Oct, 11, 5,:267-73. CoEnzyme Q10, known for its ability to regulate cell metabolism and proliferation, was assessed for its ability to promote the same functions after being homeopathically potentised. Undifferentiated human umbilical vein endothelial cell cultures were exposed to various potencies of CoQ10 (5X to 10X) The cell division rate was then assessed by flow cytometry and cell differentiation determined by von Willebrand factor expression. The 7X to 10X potencies of CoQ10, and particularly the 8X potency, increased cell proliferation while none of the potencies appeared to enhance cell differentiation.
  14. Moss VA, Roberts A, Simpson K. Action of Remedies on Movement of Macrophages and Leucocytes. Homeopathy, 2002, 91, 113-114. Laboratory measurements of guinea pig macrophages and human leucocytes exposed to the homoeopathic remedies Belladonna, Hepar sulph, Pyrogenium, Silica and Staphylococcinum, showed that these remedies caused an increase in the movement of these cells through a Boyden micropore filter. This may indicate that the remedies produce an increase in this aspect of immune competence.
  15. Oberbaum M, Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Stolt P, Weiser M. Antiviral activity of Engystol: an in vitro analysis. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct, 11, 5, 855-62. Cultured tissue cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), human rhinovirus (HRV), adeno 5 (A5V) and respiratory syncytial virus were exposed to Engystol, a homeopathic combination product. These cells were then assayed for virus clearance using plaque reduction, virus titration and Elisa methods. The results of these assays showed an 80% reduction in HSV-1 specific proteins, a 73% reduction in A5V specific proteins and a reduction in infectivity of RSV by 37% and HRV by 20%.
  16. Pathak S, Multani AS, Banerji P, Banerji P. Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer. Int J Oncol. 2003 Oct;23(4):975-82. In this uncontrolled study, 15 people suffering from various intracranial tumors were treated with a combination Ruta 6C and homoeopathic calcium phosphate. All forms of tumors, particularly gliomas, were found to regress under treatment with these medicines and the trial subjects also exhibited an increase in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. Further examination of a possible mechanism for the tumor-killing effect of this combination found that it was due to cancer cell telomere erosion, causing a selective early death of these cells.
  17. Poitevin B, Davenas E, Benveniste J. In Vitro Immunological Degranulation of Human Basophils is Modulated by Lung Histamine and Apis mellifica. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 1988, 25, 439-444. In this study, potentised dilutions of Apis mellifica and Histamine were found to significantly reduce basophil degranulation in vitro.
  18. Ramachandran C, Nair PK, Clement RT, Melnick SJ. Investigation of cytokine expression in human leukocyte cultures with two immune-modulatory homeopathic preparations. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 May;13(4):403-7. The aim of the researchers from Miami Children's Hospital in Florida who carried out this study was to determine the effects of homeopathics on cellular signalling pathways, specifically, the effects of 2 anti-influenza homeopathic combination products on normal human leukocyte cultures. When the researchers compared the effects of the homeopathic combinations to 20% ethanol solvent controls, it was found that exposure to either of the homeopathic combinations stimulated the production of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines by these cells.
  19. Singh L.M., Gupta G. Antiviral Efficacy of Homeopathic Drugs against Animal Viruses. British Homeopathic Journal, 1985, July, 74, 3. Researchers at the Indian Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow carried out this study to determine the inhibiting effects, if any, of various potencies of 10 homeopathic remedies on chicken embryo virus and simliki forest virus, a virus capable of causing encephalitis, paralysis ad death in mice. Homeopathic typhoidinum 200C, hydrophobinum 1M, tuberculinum 1M, nux vomica 200C and malandrinum 1M all produced 100% inhibition of the chicken embryo virus.
  20. Sukul NC, Sukul A, Sinhababu SP. Potentised Mercuric Chloride and Mercuric Iodide enhance Alpha Amylase activity in vitro. Homeopathy, 2002, 91, 217-220. In part a repetition of a trial published in 1954, researchers determined that Mercuric chloride 30C and Mercuric iodide 30C, both of which theoretically should contain no molecules of either of the original substance, were able to promote the hydrolysis of starch in vitro. This tends to support the view that the water molecules in the remedy retain the "memory" of the original molecule through the homeopathic potentisation process.
  21. Sunila ES, Kuttan R, Preethi KC, Kuttan G. Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009, 6, 2, 257-263. This article describes a series of tests carried out at the Amala Cancer Research Centre in Kerala, India, on cells grown in the laboratory using various homeopathically prepared medicines to ascertain their effects on these cells. Mother tincture, 30C and 200C potencies of various substances as well as potentised alcohol controls were separately added to the individual growth media in which certain lymphoma, carcinoma, fibroblast and ovary cells were grown. After analysing the effects of these materials on the various cell cultures, it was found that some of these caused significant cell death during short and long term incubation when compared to alcohol controls. It was also found that some of the test materials inhibited thymidine uptake in lung fibroblasts (therefore inhibiting growth), Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosin specifically, induced cell death in lymphoma cells, and Carcinosin was able to induce the expression of p53, which has been found to be capable of causing tumor suppression.
  22. Walchli C, Baumgartner S, Bastide MJ. Effect of low doses and high homeopathic potencies in normal and cancerous human lymphocytes: an in vitro isopathic study. Altern Complement Med. 2006 Jun, 12, 5, 421-7. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pretreatment with either low doses, or homeopathic potencies, of cadmium chloride on the ability of normal lymphocyte or cancerous lymphocyte cultures to withstand exposure to toxic doses of cadmium. Normal lymphocytes exposed to toxic levels of cadmium which were pretreated with either low dose of cadmium or potentised cadmium showed a significant increase in viability. This effect was the same in the cancerous lymphocytes except that these cells showed no increase in viability after pre-treatment with potentised cadmium.
  23. Witt CM, Bluth M, Albrecht H, Weisshuhn TE, Baumgartner S, Willich SN. The In-Vitro Evidence for an Effect of High Homeopathic Potencies--a Systematic Review of the Literature. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2007 Jun;15(2):128-38. This was essentially a meta-analysis of all of the in-vitro studies that have attempted to demonstrate a homeopathic effect to date, carried out by Professor Claudia Witt and colleagues at the Department of Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charite University Medical Center in Berlin, Germany. The aim here was to search all appropriate databases for relevant studies, determine which studies met the quality criteria set by the researchers, and then to determine which, if any of these, exhibited a statistically significant effect in this area. 67 papers were identified that met the quality criteria and of these, 73% found that an effect from high potencies can be demonstrated. The majority of these studies involved the effects of potentised substances on basophils. Replication of some of these studies has been carried out.

The Use of Homeopathy
Firstly, it might be useful for you to know the extent to which homoeopathic medicines are used around the world. Globally, homoeopathy is an extremely popular modality and to reflect this, in 1999 the World Health Organisation (WHO) called for closer incorporation of homoeopathy into "western medical systems"1 and a ranking of the world's top healing systems (including pharmaceutical drug therapy) carried out in 2003 had homoeopathy second only in popularity to Traditional Chinese Medicine2. In Germany, 20% of medical practitioners prescribe homoeopathic medicines for their patients 3, 4, 5 and they're used by 90% of German veterinarians6. It's interesting that given the fact that homeopathy was originally developed in Dr Samuel Hahnemann in Germany, there isn't a higher level of use by medical practitioners. In the UK a study carried out in 1994 found that 10 out of the 16 university pharmacy schools taught homoeopathy as an undergraduate subject and in 1999, 66% of pharmacies sold homoeopathic medicines7, 8, 9 with some particular pharmacy groups such as Boots producing their own range of homoeopathic medicines10 . Still in the UK, there are 5 homoeopathic hospitals run by the British National Health Service (NHS), as well as 2 private homoeopathic hospitals and homoeopathy has been supported by the NHS since it's inception in 194811, 12. A 1992 study found that 42% of British doctors refer their patients for homoeopathic treatment13 by 2001 20% of Scottish GP's had been trained in homoeopathy 14 and by 2003, 86% of Scottish GP's surveyed were found to be in favour of homoeopathy 15 Currently, homoeopathy is the second most popular complementary medicine in the UK 16, 17. The situation in France is also interesting. Most French pharmacies carry these products18, 19 and in 1999 the French Medical Association called for homeopathy to be included in all medical degree training20. A 1998 study concluded that people using prescribed homoeopathic medicine cost the French government half of that for patients who used pharmaceutical treatments21, 22 Around the rest of Europe, 45% of doctors in the Netherlands use homoeopathy (40% of GP's in the Netherlands use homoeopathy23, 85% of Belgian medical practitioners provide homoeopathic treatment for their patients24, 25, 47% of Dutch doctors use homoeopathy26 and in the 10 years to 2002, interest in homoeopathy in Switzerland had risen by 300%27 and homoeopathy is rebatable by most health insurance providers27. In 1997, 37% of Norwegians who were surveyed had visited a homoeopath 28 and homoeopathy is the most frequently used system of veterinary medicine in Norway29. In Europe generally, a 2003 survey found that 20-25% of all Europeans used homoeopathic medicines30, 31 and homoeopathy was the most frequently used complementary medicine in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, Italy and Switzerland32. In 1999 The European Parliament called for homoeopathy to be integrated into medical practice33 and the EU recommended that homoeopathy and herbs be used as first line treatments in veterinary medicine34 Pakistan appears to have a high level of interest in homoeopathy. Last year, the Pakistani Government established homoeopathic dispensaries in Pakistani hospitals35 and there are 165 government recognised

homoeopathic medicine colleges operating throughout the country36. For the last few years the Pakistan government has set up homoeopathic medicine camps to treat the pilgrims who travel on the Haj to Mecca. Last year, 50,000 people were treated in these camps37. In India, 54% of medical practitioners prescribe homoeopathic medicines38 they're widely used in Indian hospitals and homoeopathy is the most commonly used complementary medicine in this country39, 40, 41. In 2003 in Sri Lanka, construction began on a government-funded homoeopathic hospital at Welisara42 and Columbian President, Alvaro Uribe, uses homoeopathic medicines to "stay in mental shape"43. It's estimated that there are 15,000 homoeopathic doctors practicing in Brazil44 and homoeopathy and it's a government requirement that homoepathy is taught as an undergraduate subject in all pharmacy courses at Brazilian universities45. In the USA, 58% of US medical schools teach homoeopathy46. In Australia, the level of use of these medicines is a little difficult to determine. One relatively recent study said that around 12% of Australians use homoeopathic medicines but this figure has yet to be verified47. However, 78% of pharmacies here carry products made from homoeopathic ingredients and many of the larger pharmacy groups recommend these products as a core range, i.e. it's mandatory for anyone setting up one of these stores to have them on their shelves 48. In New Zealand49 and South Africa50, homoeopathy forms part of the undergraduate program in pharmacy courses in some universities.

  1. Poitevin B, Integrating Homoepathy in Health Systems, WHO Bulletin, 1999, 77, 2, 160-166.
  2. Kemper KJ, Jacobs J, Homeopathy in Pediatrics- No harm likely but how much good? Contemporary Pediatrics, May, 2003, 20, 97-111
  3. Ludtke R et al, Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Natureheilkd, 2001, 8, 4, 213-8.
  4. BMJ 2 November 2002;325:990.
  5. WHO Bulletin op cit.
  6. HomInt R&D Newsletter, Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital, 1998.
  7. Jain, A, "Does Homeopathy reduce the cost of drug prescribing?" Homeopathy, 2003, 92, 71-6.
  8. Barnes J, Uncovering Potential Problems with Complementary Remedies: A Survey of Community Pharmacies, Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Report on Complementary and Alternative Medicines, Response to the House of Lords Science and Technology Committee, Sob-Committee III, October, 1999, Appendix 2.
  9. BBC News, 20 Aril 2003.
  10. Authors personal observations, London 1995.
  11. wen DK et al, "Can doctors respond to patient's increasing interest in complementary and alternative medicine?", ", British Medical Journal, 20 January, 2001, 322, 154-8.
  12. Natural Medicine Society News, 21, June 1992.
  13. Natural Medicine Society News, op cit.
  14. Reilly D, The Puzzle of Homoeopathy, J Alt Compl Med, 2001, 7, Suppl 1, S103-9.
  15. Hamilton E, Exploring General Practitioners attitudes to homeopathy in Dumfries and Galloway, Homeopathy, 2003, 92, 190-194.
  16. "New research in the Times Body and Soul reveals disenchanted Britons turning to complementary therapy", PRNewswire, London Jan 9, 2004.
  17. The Independent, 17 November, 2003.
  18. Author, personal observations, Paris, 1993, 1995.
  19. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2004, Mar, 18, 13, 10, 711.
  20. Archives of Internal Medicine, 1999, 17, September 27.
  21. Archives of Family Medicine, 1998, 7, 537-40.
  22. Economic facts and figures, European Coalition on Homoeopathic and Anthroposophical Medicinal Products, September 2003, 9-10.
  23. Visser GJ, et al. Alternative Medicine and General Practitioners in the Netherlands, Family Practice, 1990, 7, 3, 227-232.
  24. Aldridge D. Europe looks at Complementary Medicines, BMJ, 1989, 299, 1121-1122.
  25. Watson R. "Belgium is to Regulate Complementary Medicine, British Medical Journal, 22 May, 1999, 318, 1372.
  26. Pirotta MV et al, Complementary Therapies- have they been accepted in general practice?, Medical Journal of Australia, 2000, 172, 105-109.
  27. Swiss Radio International, May 2, 2002.
  28. News Briefs, Complementary Medicine, March/April 2003, 11.
  29. Viksveen P, Antibiotics and the development of resistant microorganisms. Can homeopathy be an alternative? Homeopathy, 2003, 92, 99-107.
  30. Viksveen P, op cit
  31. European Coalition on Homoeopathic and Anthroposophical Medicinal Products, op cit
  32. Viksveen P, op cit
  33. Archives of Internal Medicine, 1999, 17, September 27.
  34. Viksveen P, op cit.
  35. www.paknews.com, 21.6.03.
  36. www.paknews.com, 21.6.03
  37. "Ailing Haj pilgrims provided treatment", Pakistan Daily Times, Mar 3, 2003.
  38. The Daily Star, Sept 26, 2002.
  39. Times of India, 9.6.03.
  40. J Ethnopharmacol, 2001, May, 75, 2-3, 71-5.
  41. The Hindu, October 23, 2003.
  42. Daily News, Sri Lanka, Jan 3, 2003.
  43. "A Year In, Uribe Racing to Reform", St Petersburg Times, August 4, 2003.
  44. Yasgur J. "Homeopathy In Brasil", Homeopathy Today, Jan 2003, 34.
  45. Yasgur J. op cit
  46. Acad Med, 2002, September, 77 (9), 876-81.
  47. Brauer Natural Medicine, Industry marketing data 2004
  48. Brauer Natural Medicine, Industry marketing data, op cit
  49. Personal correspondance, Dr Steven Kayne, PhD, MBA, LLB, DAgVetPharm, MRPharmS, MCPP, MPS (NZ), ACNZP, Visiting Lecturer, Dept of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Tutor, Homoeopathic Hospitals of Glasgow and London, Tutor, Pharmacy Dept, Otago PolytechnicMay 1995.
  50. Personal correspondance, Dr Steven Kayne, op cit.

Homeopathy Works
Homeopathic medicines have been used around the world continuously for over 210 years. During that time they've been subjected to attack by medical practitioners who've lost patients to prescribers of homeopathy, by pharmaceutical companies who lose profits due to the reduced sales of drugs, and by the organisations and individuals who directly or indirectly are supported by these organisations. In recent times these attacks on homeopathy have been vigorously supported by the media, which is sustained to a significant degree by the advertising revenue received from pharmaceutical manufacturers. Despite these attacks, homeopathy continues to survive and in many places during several periods of history has flourished. The nature of these attacks has taken several forms but the 2 enduring criticisms of homeopathy are that it's "unscientific" and that it lacks the backing of clinical trials. The latter is interesting given the fact that only 10-20% of conventional medical practices are validated by appropriate evidence1.
Arguments Against Homeopathy
To enlarge on the above, the main argument against homeopathy appears to be, "I don't understand how it can work therefore it can't work." For many who take this position no amount of properly conducted research that shows clearly that it does work will convince them otherwise.
Plainly, this is intellectually dishonest. Some people also take the view that homeopathy can't work because there's no scientific basis for its activity. The only problem with this view is that it assumes that the body of science that's been accumulated to date is fixed and will never be added to, and that there'll be no new discoveries of fact, observation or mechanism. It also assumes that there's no evidence for a mechanism that either partly or fully explains the action of homeopathics. Such evidence does exist and is easy to find2,3 but even if this wasn't the case, an absence of evidence does not constitute evidence of absence.
A number of publications are cited by sceptics of homeopathy that are used to support their views. The flagship is a review published in the Lancet entitled "Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects?"4 Here, after ultimately comparing 8 trials on homeopathy with 6 on conventional medicine, Shang et al boldly assert that homeopathy is no more effective than placebo. A cursory examination of this article reveals it to be dodgy in the extreme. To quote the authors of the study, "We assumed that the (positive) effects observed in placebo-controlled trials of homeopathy could be explained by a combination of methodological deficiencies and biased reporting." The article was riddled with methodological flaws and received widespread condemnation from academics and other experts in this field, including a denunciation by the Indian Health Minister, Prof. Chaturbhuj Nayak.5 Subsequent re-analysis of this article in fact found that homeopathy was more effective than placebo6, 7.
Another criticism levelled at homeopathy is that clinical trials haven't been replicated. This isn't strictly the case as replication has occurred in several areas (hay fever and diarrhoea to name just 2) but it's true that more replication would be useful. The reason for a comparatively low level of replication of trials in this area is that unlike pharmaceuticals, homoeopathic medicines in most cases can't be patented, and there's little incentive to invest large amounts of money in clinical trials if the product sponsors can't monopolise the results.
So, is there any evidence that homeopathy works and if so, what form does that evidence take?
It's important to bear in mind here that critics of homeopathy confidently declare that there is NO evidence for homeopathy. This is a long way from the truth of the matter and the evidence for the effectiveness of homeopathy is remarkably easy to find.
Human Clinical Trial Meta-analyses
These are systematic statistical analyses of existing human controlled trials that have met certain quality criteria and are carried out to determine if the research can show that a trend exists one way or the other.

  • Kleijnan et al in the BMJ8 report that of the 105 clinical trials that met the reviewers' quality criteria, 81 of those trials showed a positive effect for homeopathy.
  • Cucherat, et al9 state, "There is some evidence that homeopathic treatments are more effective than placebo." 16 studies were evaluated.
  • Barnes J, et al, on post operative ileus10, "There is evidence that homeopathic treatment can reduce the duration of ileus after abdominal of gynaecological surgery". 6 studies were evaluated.
  • From Bornhoft, et al11, "Effectiveness of homeopathy can be supported by clinical evidence". 74 studies were evaluated.
  • Linde, et al12 report. "Among the high quality studies, positive effects were reported 50% more often than negative effects." 105 studies were evaluated.
  • Mathie13 states, "The weight of evidence currently favours a positive treatment effect in eight (areas): childhood diarrhoea, fibrositis, hayfever, influenza, pain (miscellaneous), side effects of radio-or chemotherapy, sprains and upper respiratory tract infections." 93 studies were evaluated.
  • On a meta-analysis for the homeopathic medicine, Galphimia, for hay fever, Wiesenauer, et al14 state, "A significant superiority of Galphimia glauca over placebo is demonstrated. Estimates of verum success rates are comparable with those of conventional antihistaminics, but no side effects occurred." 11 studies were evaluated.
  • Witt, et al15 reports, "Even experiments with a high methodological standard could demonstrate an effect of high potencies." 75 studies were evaluated.

Individual Human Clinical Trials There are a large number of high quality randomised controlled human clinical trials that have been carried our using homeopathy. Lack of space precludes listing these here but they're easy to find either on Medline26, websites operated by institutions such as the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital27, websites that carry material on this subject such as Homeopathic Doctor28, and Nutrition Matters29. A good example of the kind of work done here is that carried out by David Reilly and published in the Lancet in 199430, where he and others conducted a placebo controlled randomised trial looking at the use of homeopathic medicines with 28 patients diagnosed with allergic asthma. Homeopathy proved superior to placebo, and this trial was so well designed and conducted that the editors of the Lancet commented that, "either there is something amiss with the clinical trial as conventionally conducted, or the effects of homoeopathic immunotherapy differ from those of placebo…carefully done work of this sort should not be denied the attention of Lancet readers."31

Homeopathy Works
Homeopathic medicines have been used around the world continuously for over 210 years.
During that time they've been subjected to attack by medical practitioners who've lost patients to prescribers of homeopathy, by pharmaceutical companies who lose profits due to the reduced sales of drugs, and by the organisations and individuals who directly or indirectly are supported by these organisations. In recent times these attacks on homeopathy have been vigorously supported by the media, which is sustained to a significant degree by the advertising revenue received from pharmaceutical manufacturers. Despite these attacks, homeopathy continues to survive and in many places during several periods of history has flourished. The nature of these attacks has taken several forms but the 2 enduring criticisms of homeopathy are that it's "unscientific" and that it lacks the backing of clinical trials. The latter is interesting given the fact that only 10-20% of conventional medical practices are validated by appropriate evidence1.
Arguments Against Homeopathy
To enlarge on the above, the main argument against homeopathy appears to be, "I don't understand how it can work therefore it can't work." For many who take this position no amount of properly conducted research that shows clearly that it does work will convince them otherwise.
Plainly, this is intellectually dishonest. Some people also take the view that homeopathy can't work because there's no scientific basis for its activity. The only problem with this view is that it assumes that the body of science that's been accumulated to date is fixed and will never be added to, and that there'll be no new discoveries of fact, observation or mechanism. It also assumes that there's no evidence for a mechanism that either partly or fully explains the action of homeopathics. Such evidence does exist and is easy to find2,3 but even if this wasn't the case, an absence of evidence does not constitute evidence of absence.
A number of publications are cited by sceptics of homeopathy that are used to support their views. The flagship is a review published in the Lancet entitled "Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects?"4 Here, after ultimately comparing 8 trials on homeopathy with 6 on conventional medicine, Shang et al boldly assert that homeopathy is no more effective than placebo. A cursory examination of this article reveals it to be dodgy in the extreme. To quote the authors of the study, "We assumed that the (positive) effects observed in placebo-controlled trials of homeopathy could be explained by a combination of methodological deficiencies and biased reporting." The article was riddled with methodological flaws and received widespread condemnation from academics and other experts in this field, including a denunciation by the Indian Health Minister, Prof. Chaturbhuj Nayak.5 Subsequent re-analysis of this article in fact found that homeopathy was more effective than placebo6, 7.
Another criticism levelled at homeopathy is that clinical trials haven't been replicated. This isn't strictly the case as replication has occurred in several areas (hay fever and diarrhoea to name just 2) but it's true that more replication would be useful. The reason for a comparatively low level of replication of trials in this area is that unlike pharmaceuticals, homoeopathic medicines in most cases can't be patented, and there's little incentive to invest large amounts of money in clinical trials if the product sponsors can't monopolise the results.
So, is there any evidence that homeopathy works and if so, what form does that evidence take?
It's important to bear in mind here that critics of homeopathy confidently declare that there is NO evidence for homeopathy. This is a long way from the truth of the matter and the evidence for the effectiveness of homeopathy is remarkably easy to find.
Human Clinical Trial Meta-analyses
These are systematic statistical analyses of existing human controlled trials that have met certain quality criteria and are carried out to determine if the research can show that a trend exists one way or the other.

  • Kleijnan et al in the BMJ8 report that of the 105 clinical trials that met the reviewers' quality criteria, 81 of those trials showed a positive effect for homeopathy.
  • Cucherat, et al9 state, "There is some evidence that homeopathic treatments are more effective than placebo." 16 studies were evaluated.
  • Barnes J, et al, on post operative ileus10, "There is evidence that homeopathic treatment can reduce the duration of ileus after abdominal of gynaecological surgery". 6 studies were evaluated.
  • From Bornhoft, et al11, "Effectiveness of homeopathy can be supported by clinical evidence". 74 studies were evaluated.
  • Linde, et al12 report. "Among the high quality studies, positive effects were reported 50% more often than negative effects." 105 studies were evaluated.
  • Mathie13 states, "The weight of evidence currently favours a positive treatment effect in eight (areas): childhood diarrhoea, fibrositis, hayfever, influenza, pain (miscellaneous), side effects of radio-or chemotherapy, sprains and upper respiratory tract infections." 93 studies were evaluated.
  • On a meta-analysis for the homeopathic medicine, Galphimia, for hay fever, Wiesenauer, et al14 state, "A significant superiority of Galphimia glauca over placebo is demonstrated. Estimates of verum success rates are comparable with those of conventional antihistaminics, but no side effects occurred." 11 studies were evaluated.
  • Witt, et al15 reports, "Even experiments with a high methodological standard could demonstrate an effect of high potencies." 75 studies were evaluated.

Individual Human Clinical Trials
There are a large number of high quality randomised controlled human clinical trials that have been carried our using homeopathy. Lack of space precludes listing these here but they're easy to find either on Medline26, websites operated by institutions such as the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital27, websites that carry material on this subject such as Homeopathic Doctor28, and Nutrition Matters29.
A good example of the kind of work done here is that carried out by David Reilly and published in the Lancet in 199430, where he and others conducted a placebo controlled randomised trial looking at the use of homeopathic medicines with 28 patients diagnosed with allergic asthma.
Homeopathy proved superior to placebo, and this trial was so well designed and conducted that the editors of the Lancet commented that, "either there is something amiss with the clinical trial as conventionally conducted, or the effects of homoeopathic immunotherapy differ from those of placebo…carefully done work of this sort should not be denied the attention of Lancet readers."31

Cohort Studies
These are observational studies analysing quality of life, clinical or other outcomes that have come about as a result of some specific intervention.

  • A study by Spence et al16 found that of 6544 consecutive UK NHS patients treated with homeopathy 70.7% reported positive health changes, with 50.7% recording their improvement as better or much better.
  • Witt, et al17 found that of 3981 patients seen in Swiss and German medical clinics practicing homeopathy, and who were treated with homeopathy, patient and physician scores for clinical outcomes found that disease severity decreased significantly (p < 0.001) between baseline and 24 months (adults from 6.2 +/- 1.7 to 3.0 +/- 2.2; children from 6.1 +/- 1.8 to 2.2 +/- 1.9).
  • In another study by Witt et al18, of 3709 patients seen in Swiss and German medical clinics practicing homeopathy, and who were treated with homeopathy, patient and physician scores for clinical outcomes found that disease severity decreased significantly (p < 0.001) between baseline, 2 and 8 years (adults from 6.2 +/- 1.7 to 2.9 +/- 2.2 and 2.7 +/- 2.1; children from 6.1 +/- 1.8 to 2.1 +/- 2.0 and 1.7 +/- 1.9). These effects persist for as long as 8 years.
  • Marian, et al in a 2008 study19 found that "Overall patient satisfaction was significantly higher in homeopathic than in conventional care. Homeopathic treatments were perceived as a low-risk therapy with two to three times fewer side effects than conventional care." 3126 patients were involved in this study.
  • A study by Van Wassenhoven, et al20 found that, "Patients were very satisfied with their homeopathic treatment, both they and their physicians recorded significant improvement.

Costs of homeopathic treatment were significantly lower than conventional treatment, and many previously prescribed drugs were discontinued." 782 patients were involved in this study.
It may be useful to note here that these are only 5 of a larger number of cohort studies that have been carried out in this area. These 5 involve responses to the treatment of over 17,000 people suffering from various forms of illness. A statistically significant majority of these people experienced a beneficial outcome from this treatment. If we are to believe the critics of homeopathy, these people are either liars or deluded.
Veterinary Studies

  • Albrecht, et al21 found that, in the treatment of 1440 piglets, "Homeopathic metaphylaxis is significantly effective compared with placebo and routine low-dose antibiotic metaphylaxis for incidence of disease and rate of disease of the respiratory tract among the animals studied."
  • On the treatment of Salmonella infection in poultry, Berchieri et al22 found that when 180 one day old chicks were given either an active homeopathic medicine or control and then challenged with a culture of salmonella. "Birds receiving active treatment were less likely to grow the strain of Salmonella from cloacal swabs compared to control."
  • Bertani et al23, treating oedema in 307 rats with either a homeopathic medicine or control, found that homeopathy significantly reduced oedema in comparison to controls.
  • From Cazin, et al24, 6 groups of 30 mice given radio-labelled arsenic were treated with various homeopathic potencies of arsenic and the level of retention compared to controls. All homeopathic potencies of arsenic were found to have a greater effect on arsenic elimination than controls.
  • From Datta, et al25, the authors found that pre and post-feeding of homeopathically prepared Arsenicum Album 30C and 200C to mice exposed to arsenic trioxide reduced the genotoxic effects (chromosome aberrations, micronucleated erythrocytes and sperm head anomaly) of arsenic when compared to controls.

Does Homeopathy Work?
Even if the work referred to above hadn't been carried out, 213 of continuous years of use and growth throughout Europe, more than 150 years of continuous use in the USA, India, Australia and most other parts of the world to the point where it's the world's second most popular system of healthcare32, and millions of satisfied users, would tend to indicate that homeopathy works.
References

  1. Fluhrer J, Integrative Practice Overview. Complementary Medicine, July/ August 2002, 33-35.
  2. Endler PC, Schulte J.: Ultra High Dilution: Physiology and Physics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1994, ISBN 07923-2676-8.
  3. Homeopathy, July 2007, 96, 141-230
  4. Shang A, Huwiler-Muntener K, et al. Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homeopathy and allopathy. Lancet, 2005, August 27, 366, 726-32.
  5. The Telegraph, Calcutta, India,12/9/05, Letter to the Editor, Prof. Chaturbhuj Nayak, Director, Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, India.
  6. Ludtke R, Rutten ALB. The conclusions on the effectiveness of homeopathy highly depend on the set of analyzed trials. J of Clin Epidemiology 2008.
  7. Rutten ALB, Stolper CF. The 2005 meta-analysis of homeopathy: the importance of post-publication data. Homeopathy 2008, 97, 169-177.
  8. Kleijnen J, et al. Clinical trials of homeopathy. British Medical Journal 1991; 302: 316-323.
  9. Cucherat M, et al. Evidence of Clinical efficacy of homeopathy. A meta-analysis of clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 2000, 56, 27.
  10. Barnes J, et al. Homeopathy for post operative ileus: a meta-analysis. Biomedical Therapy, Vol XVII, 2, 1999, 65-70.
  11. Bornhoft et al. Effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of homeopathy in general practice - summarized health technology assessment. Forsch Komplementarmed. 2006;13 Suppl 2:19-29.
  12. Linde K, et al. Critical Review and Meta-Analysis of serially agitated dilutions in Experimental Toxicology. Human & Experimental Toxicology, 1994, Vol. 13, No. 7, 481-492.
  13. Mathie RT. The research evidence base for homeopathy: a fresh assessment of the literature. Homeopathy 2003, 92:84-91.
  14. Wiesenauer M,et al..A meta-analysis of homeopathic treatment of pollinosis with Galphimia glauca. Wien Med Wochenschr. 1997;147(14):323-7.
  15. Witt CM, et al. The in vitro evidence for an effect of high homeopathic potencies--a systematic review of the literature. Complement Ther Med. 2007 Jun;15(2):128-38.
  16. Spence DS, et al. Homeopathic treatment for chronic disease: a 6-year, university-hospital outpatient observational study. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct;11(5):793-8.
  17. Witt CM, et al. Homeopathic medical practice: long-term results of a cohort study with 3981 patients. BMC Public Health. 2005 Nov 3;5:115
  18. Witt CM, et al. How healthy are chronically ill patients after eight years of homeopathic treatment?--Results from a long term observational study. BMC Public Health. 2008 Dec 17;8:413.
  19. Marian F, et al. Patient satisfaction and side effects in primary care: an observational study comparing homeopathy and conventional medicine. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2008 Sep 18;8:52.
  20. Van Wassenhoven M, et al An observational study of patients receiving homeopathic treatment. Homeopathy. 2004 Jan;93(1):3-11.
  21. Albrecht H, et al. Homeopathy versus antibiotics in metaphylaxis of infectious diseases: a clinical study in pig fattening and its significance to consumers. Altern Ther Health Med. 1999 Sep;5(5):64-8.
  22. Berchieri A Jr, et al. Evaluation of isopathic treatment of Salmonella enteritidis in poultry. Homeopathy. 2006 Apr;95(2):94-7.
  23. Bertani S, et al. Dual effects of a homeopathic mineral complex on carrageenan-induced oedema in rats. Br Homeopath J. 1999 Jul;88(3):101-5.
  24. Cazin JC, et al. A study of the effect of decimal and centesimal dilutions of arsenic on the retention and mobilization of arsenic in the rat. Hum Toxicol. 1987 Jul;6(4):315-20.
  25. Datta S, et al Efficacy of a potentized homoeopathic drug (Arsenicum Album-30) in reducing genotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: comparative studies of pre-, post- and combined pre- and post-oral administration and comparative efficacy of two microdoses. Complement Ther Med. 1999 Jun;7(2):62-75.
  26. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed
  27. http://www.adhom.com/adh_download/EVIDENCE_9.0_Sept_06.pdf
  28. www.homeopathicdoctor.ca/reference/proof.pdf
  29. www.nutrition-matters.co.uk/misc/homeopathy.htm.
  30. Reilly D, et al., "Is evidence for homoeopathy reproducible?", Lancet, Vol 344, December 10, 1994, pp 1601-1606.
  31. Lancet, Vol 344, December 10, 1994, p 1585.
  32. Kemper KJ, Homeopathy in Pediatrics- No Harm Likely but How Much Good? Contemporary Pediatrics, May, 2003, 20, 97.

⑱ホメオパシーにおける科学的リサーチがリストされたリンクアドレススティーブン・ ゴードン

Scientific Research in Homeopathy Triple Blind studies, Double-Blind Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial, Systematic Reviews & Meta Analysis, Evidence-base Medicines for specific disease conditions, Ultra-molecular dilutions, Animal Studies, Plant Studies 163 studies in support of homoeopathy medicine published in 74 peer-reviewed international medical journals out of which 47+ are FULL TEXT which can be downloaded Key Words: Science, Homeopath, Homeopathic, Pharmacy, Genetics Link Citation Email Print Favorite Collect this page ________________________________________ This knol is a part of homeopathy The short URL for this knol is http://u.voizle.com/homeopathy2

Contents

  1. Triple-Blind Studies
  2. Double-blind Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial (DBRPCT)
  3. Double-Blind Studies
  4. Systematic Reviews & Meta Analysis
  5. Online Database
  6. Evidence for specific disease conditions
  7. Homeopathy as a Genetic Medicine
  8. Homeopathy Research Resource
  9. Homeopathy superior to allopathy
  10. Homeopathy cost-effective than allopathy
  11. Homeopathy equals allopathy
  12. Homeopathy superior to placebo
  13. Homeopathy improving quality of life
  14. More Research studies
  15. Physics behind homeopathy
  16. Serial-agitated ultra-molecular dilutions (Dilutions beyond Avogadro number)
  17. Evidence-based Medicine
  18. To distinguish one homeopathy medicine from another
  19. To distinguish homeopathy medicine from water
  20. Placebo Effect
  21. Anecdotal Evidence
  22. Potency Selection
  23. Animal Studies
  24. Plant Studies

TRIPLE-BLIND STUDIES 1. Journal of Psychosomatic Research (Pergamon) Efficacy of homeopathic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome (2004)

DBRPCT

  1. Lancet (UK) http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2886%2990410-1/abstract (1986) //hay fever Is evidence for homoeopathy reproducible? (1994) //homeopathy does more than placebo http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9310601(1997) //homeopathy is statistically significantly superior (2.45 times more effective and positive) to placebo
  2. British Medical Journal (British Medical Association) http://nationalcenterforhomeopathy.org/content/effect-of-homoeopathic-treatment-on-fibrositis (1989) //Rhus Tox 6C for fibromyalgia (earlier known as fibrositis) (Pain & Inflammation in muscles) http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/short/302/6772/316 (1991) //105 studies: 77% of studies show positive result of homeopathy
    Homeopathy Vs Placebo in allergic rhinitis (2000) FULL TEXT homeopathic treatment for premenstrual syndrome. (2001) FULL TEXT
  3. Chest (American College of Chest Physicians)
    Kali bichromicum 30C for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in critically ill patients (2005) FULL TEXT
  4. European Journal of Paedretics (2005) FULL TEXT //ADHD
  5. Interdisciplinary Sciences: Life Sciences (SpringerLink)
    Electromagnetic properties of highly-diluted biological samples (2009) FULL TEXT
  6. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
    Homeopathic treatment of otitis media (2001)
    Homeopathy for diarrhea: meta-analysis (2003)
  7. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (InterScience by Wiley) Homeopathic treatment of patients with psoriasis (2009)
  8. Ear, Nose and Throat disorders ( BioMed Central)
    Homeopathic treatment of patients with chronic sinusitis (2009) FULL TEXT
  9. Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press)
    http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/94/2/368.abstract (2006) //why small doses of medicine is better than large dose
  10. Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery (American Medical Association)
    Effect of Homeopathic Arnica montana on Bruising in Face-lifts (2006) FULL TEXT
  11. Sleep Medicine (Elseiver)
    Effect of homeopathic medicines on polysomnographic sleep of young adults (2010) //Nux Vomica 30 & Coffea Cruda 30 for insomnia
  12. Cancer
    Homeopathic medication TRAUMEEL S in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis (2001) FULL TEXT
  13. Applied Health Economics & Health Policy (Adis)
    Sinfrontal (Cinnabaris 4X, Ferrum Phos 3X, etc) in the treatment of maxillary sinus (sinus + tooth pain) (2009) //ENT & respiratory tract infections
  14. Inflammation Research (Springer)
    Homeopathic histamine modulates human basophil activation (2004) FULL TEXT
  15. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America (Elseiver)
    Homeopathy and Rheumatic Diseases (2000)
  16. Pediatrics (American Academy of Pediatrics)
    Treatment of acute childhood diarrhea with homeopathic medicine (1994)
  17. Journal of Hellenic Headache Association
    Homeopathic Treatment in patients with migraine (2006)
  18. Rheumatology (Oxford University Press)
    Improved Clinical Status in Fibromyalgia patients treated with homeopathic remedies Vs Placebo (2004) FULL TEXT // LM potency
    http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/39/7/714 (2000) FULL TEXT //osteo-arthritis of the knee
  19. American Journal of Pain Management
    Osteo-arthritic Pain: A Comparison of Homeopathy and Paracetamol (1998)
  20. Physica A (Elseiver)
    Thermo-luminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride & sodium chloride (2003) //distinguishing one homeopathy medicine from another
  21. Journal of Clinical Gastro-enterology (Wolters Kluwer)
    Homeopathy for postoperative ileus? A meta-analysis (1997)
  22. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation (Wolters Kluwer)
    Homeopathic Treatment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (1999)
  23. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (British Pharmacological Society)
    A homeopathic preparation in treatment of influenza (1989) FULL TEXT
    Homoeopathic therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (1980) //82% patients got relief in rheumatoid arthritis compared to 21% on placebo
  24. Phlebology (The Royal Society of Medicine Press, UK)
    "Complementary Treatment of Varicose Veins: A Randomised, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Trial" E. Ernst, T. Saradeth, K.L. Resch, 1990, 157-163.
    Over a period of 24 days, the effects of a homeopathic complex preparation and placebo on varicose veins were tested in a double-blind trial of 61 people suffering from this condition. The homeopathic complex produced an averaged 44% improvement in the condition while those given the placebo experienced an averaged worsening of the disorder.
  25. Human and Experimental Toxicology (Sage)
    Meta-analysis of serial agitated dilutions in experimental toxicology (1994) //80% homeopathy medicines shows positive effects
  26. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (Dustri-Verlag)
    Homoeopathic treatment of otitis media (1997)
  27. Journal of Dermatological Treatment (Taylor & Francis)
    Homoeopathic treatment of leg ulcers (1997) //Sulphur 6, Siliciea 6 & Carbo Veg 6
  28. Archives of Otolaryngology- head & Neck Surgery (American Medical Association)
    Homeopathic Vs conventional treatment of vertigo (1998)
  29. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy (Informa, UK)
    Homoeopathic Sinusitis Medication (1995) FULL TEXT
  30. International Journal of High Dilution Research
    Usefulness of 13 homoeopathic medicines in the management of acute rhinitis (2010) //Nux-Vomica, Merc, Belladonna
    Scientific framework of Homeopathy: Evidence-based Homeoapthy (2008) FULL TEXT // Quality of life, Cost effectiveness
  31. The Science of the total Environment (Elseiver)
    Homeopathic remedy for arsenic toxicity: Evidence-based findings (2007) //Arsenicum Album 30
  32. International Journal of Oncology (Spandidos)
    Ruta 6 induces cell deaths in brain cancer cells: A novel treatment for human brain cancer (2003) FULL TEXT
    Cytotoxic effects of ultra-diluted remedies on breast cancer cells (2010) //Carcinosin, Phytolacca, Conium and Thuja for breast cancer
  33. Nonlinear Biomedical Physics (BioMed Central)
    http://www.nonlinearbiomedphys.com/content/3/1/10 (2009) //FULL TEXT //serial-agitated ultra-molecular dilutions
  34. The European Journal of Heart Failure (Elseiver)
    Efficacy of homeopathic Crataegus & Spigelia for mild cardiac insufficiency (2003) FULL TEXT
  35. Annals of Pharmacotherapy (Harvey Whitney)
    Treatment of allergic rhinitis with homeopathy (2005)
  36. International Review of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (Medpress)
    Brydak LB, Denys A. The evaluation of humoral response and the clinical evaluation of a risk-group patients' state of health after administration of the homeopathic preparation Gripp-Heel during the influenza epidemic season 1993/94. 1999; 5: 223-227
  37. British Journal of Podiatry
    Ruta Graveolens 30C for the treatment of pain in plantar fasciitis (foot) (2000)
  38. HNO (German) (SpringerLink Verlag)
    Homeopathy in acute rhino-sinusitis (2007)
  39. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing (Elseiver)
    Sinfrontal for Acute Maxillary Sinusitis (Sinus + tooth pain) (2007)
  40. Pharmacy World and Science
    Echinacea Q, Ledum palustre Q, Urtica urens Q & Hamamelis for redness/rash & lump on the skin due to mosquito bite (1996)
  41. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
    Homeopathic gel for redness/rash & lump on the skin due to mosquito bite (1995)
  42. Journal de gynecologie, obstetrique et biologie de la reproduction (French) meaning Journal of Gynaecology, Obstetrics and Reproductive Biology (English)
    Treatment of pain due to unwanted lactation with a homeopathic preparation given in post-partum period (2001)
  43. Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift (German)
    Meta-analysis of homeopathic treatment of pollinosis with Galphimia glauca (1997) //homeopathic Galphimia glauca for hay fever
    Homeopathy in emergency medicine (2005) //critically ill/ICU patients
  44. Der Kassenarzt (German) meaning The Panel Doctor (English)
    http://www.vasezdravlje.com/izdanje/clanak/1874/ FULL TEXT // tonsillitis
  45. Arzneimittel-Forschung (German) meaning Medicines Research (English)
    Treatment of vertigo with a homeopathic remedies (2005)
    Comparing the effectiveness of the Galphimia, Galphimia 6X, and placebo on pollinosis (1985)
    "Homoeopathische kombinatlon bel vertigo and nausea", C.F. Claussen, J. Bergmann. G. Bertora .and E. Claussen, 34 (1984):1791-98.
  46. Cahrs de Biotherapie (French) meaning CARS Biotherapy (English)
    "Preparation for Birth by Homeopathy: Experimentation by Double-Blind Versus Placebo", Pierre Dorfman, Marie Noel Lasserre. and Max Tetau, 94 (April 1987): 77-81 //The average labor time of the women given homeopathy was 5.1 Hours, while the Placebo Group was 8.5 Hours. Only 11.3% of women given homeopathy had any abnormal labor, while 40% of Placebo Group had an abnormal labour
  47. Zeitschrift fur Allgemeinmedizin (German) meaning Journal of General Practice (English)
    Homeopathic therapy in respiratory tract diseases.Evaluation of a clinical study in 258 patients (1997)
  48. Fortschritte der Medizin (German) meaning Medical Progress (English)
    Treatment of pollinosis with Galphimia Glauca 4X (1983)
  49. Allergologie (German) meaning Allergology
    Treatment of pollinosis with the homeopathic preparation Galphimia Glauca (1990)
  50. Tijdschrift Integrale Geneeskunde (Dutch) meaning Integrative Medicine Journal (English)
    Rottey EED, Verleye GB, Liagre RLP. The effect of a homeopathic preparation in the prevention of flu symptoms: a randomized double-blind trial in primary care practice. 1995; 11: 54-58
  51. Pediatrie (French) meaning Pediatrics (English)
    Aconite for post-operative pain-agitation syndrome (1990)
  52. Aktuelle Rheumatologie (German) meaning Current Rheumatology (English)
    Homeopathic preparation 'Rheumaselect' for Rheumatoid Arthritis (1991)

HOMEOPATHY-ONLY JOURNALS:

  1. Homeopathy (Elseiver) The research evidence base for homeopathy (2003) //50 of the 93 studies favors homeopathy in 8 medical conditions Homeopathic treatment in patients with severe sepsis (2005) Cost-benefit evaluation of homeopathic versus conventional therapy in respiratory diseases (2009) //treatment by homeopathy costs 50% less Homeopathic & antibiotic treatment strategies in recurrent acute rhinopharyngitis (2005) //Inflammation of the mucous membranes of nose & throat http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20129180 (2010) //placebo effect size same in allopathy & homeopathy medicine Application of 200C potency of bacteria for Leptospirosis epidemic control (2010) FULL TEXT Leptospirosis (fever+jaundice+ inflammation in kidney+enlargement of spleen) Homeopathic treatment of aphthous ulcer (2009) //oral ulcer Chronic Insomnia: Efficiacy of homeopathic simillimum (2010) FULL TEXT Homeopathy as an adjunct to usual care for fibromyalgia (2009) Homeopathic patho-genetic trials (2006) FULL TEXT Osteo-arthritis before and after homeopathic treatment (2008) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on Kalium bichromicum (2008) Arnica montana 30C for post-tonsillectomy analgesia (2007) //pain after tonsils removal Homeopathic dilutions beyond 12C retains fine nano-particles of original starting material (2010) Effects of homeopathic treatment on salivary flow rate in patients with oral dryness (2005) Effects of homeopathic treatment on itching of skin in haemo-dialysis patient (2003)
  2. British Homoeopathic Journal http://bit.ly/aojfhY (1986) //Arnica, Bryonia & Rhus Tox for fibromyalgia Applicability of Caulophyllum 7C during labour (1993) //reduces duration of labour by 90 minutes Betula 30C for hay fever (2000) Homeopathy for diseases of the lymph nodes in HIV Stage 2 & 3 infected people (1999) //immunity raised Oscillococcinum in patients with influenza (1998) Efficacy of China rubra 9C for complications in patients on chronic kidney dialysis (1992) // Statistically significant improvements of weakness, lethargy and headache Efficacy and safety of a homeopathic gel Spiroflor SRL in the treatment of acute low back pain (2001) Belladonna 7C and X-Ray 15C for treatment of radio-therapy induced dermatitis in breast cancer (2000) Homeopathic treatment of migraine (2000) 1996 Apr;85(2):66-70: A pilot study in Ghana showing homoeopathic treatment equal to and slightly more effective than chloroquine in the treatment of acute malaria Reilly DT, Taylor MA. Potent placebo or potency? A proposed study model with initial findings using homoeopathically prepared pollens in hayfever. 1985; 74: 65-75.
  3. Central Council for Research in Homeopathy, Govt of India http://ccrhindia.org/cumulative/clinicalresearch.htm (1985-1998) http://ccrhindia.org/collaborative.asp (1988-2007)
  4. American Journal of Homoeopathic Medicine Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases in Children, 2009, 102 (3): 122-129 Henry Albertini et al., 78 (September 1985): 126-128 // 76% got relief for neuralgia pain following tooth extraction
  5. Asian Journal of Homeopathy To investigate the effectiveness of homeopathy in medical primary care in upper and lower respiratory tract complaints, 01 Feb 2008, pp. 3-19
  6. Berlin Journal of Research in Homeopathy Homoeopathic treatment of anal fissures using Nitricum acidum 9C (1991) Homeopathic Treatment of Migraines: A Randomized Double-blind Controlled Study of 60 Case", Bruno Brigo, and G. Serpelloni, March 1991, 1,2:98-106 // 93% of patients got relief compared to only 17% in placebo-treated
  7. Aspects of Research in Homeopathy
    "The Effects of Hahnemannian Potencies of 7c Histaminum and 7c Apis Mellifica upon Basophil Degranulation in Allergic Patients", Jean Boiron. Jacky Abecassls. and Philippe Belon, Lyon: Boiron, 1983, pp. 61-66.

CAM JOURNALS

  1. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (Liebert) Arnica montana 4X for Healing of Wounds After Hallux Valgus Surgery Compared to Diclofenac (2008)
    Variation in Fourier transform infrared spectra of homeopathic potencies (2005) //distinguishing homeopathy medicine from solvent
    http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-scientific-research/is-a-unified-theory-of-homeopathy-and-conventional-medicine-possible/ (2007)
    Gas Discharge Visualization Evaluation of Ultramolecular Doses of Homeopathic Medicines (2003) //distinguishing homeopathy medicine from solvent
    VertigoHeel for treatment of Vertigo (2005)
    Homeopathic treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea (2000)
    Homeopathy for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer patients (2005)
  2. Evidence-based Complimentary & Alternative Medicine (Oxford University Press)
    http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/4/1/7 (2007) FULL TEXT //entanglement
    Homeopathic LM potencies Vs Fluoxetine for Depression (2009) FULL TEXT
    Immunology and Homeopathy (2005) FULL TEXT
    Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture (2007) FULL TEXT //Carcinosinum, Conium, Lycopodium activates beneficial gene p53 which provides defense against tumour/cancer
    Can Homeopathy Bring Additional Benefits to Thalassemic Patients: Encouraging Results (2007) FULL TEXT //thallasemia
  3. Complementary Therapies in Medicine (Elseiver)
    Homeopathic arnica therapy in patients receiving knee surgery (2006) //inflammation
    Homoeopathic Vs conventional treatment strategies in patients with chronic disorders (2005) FULL TEXT
    The in vitro evidence for an effect of high homeopathic potencies-A systematic review (2007) //serial agitated ultra-molecular dilutions
    The effect of homeopathic remedies Arnica montana & Bellis perennis on post-partum bleeding (2005) //bleeding after delivery
    Homeopathy Proven Better Than Conventional Medicine for Eczema
    Homeopathy, sensation of well-being and CD4-levels (1998) //homeopathy improves sensation of well-being, provided evidence of ultra-high dilutions and may affect CD4 levels
    Effects of the Arnica 30X on 1995 Oslo marathon runners (1998) //reduces muscle soreness
    Homeopathy for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections (2005)
    Traumeel for trauma and acute musculo-skeletal injuries (2008)
  4. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
    Homeopathic treatment of depression and anxiety (1997) //58% of patients responded to homeopathy for anxiety and phobia
  5. Alternative Medicine Review
    Kali Bromatum 1X, Natrum Bromatum, Nickel Sulfate 3X, Natrum Mur 6X for dermatitis of scalp and dandruff (2002)
  6. Forschende Komplementarmedizin (German) meaning Research in Complimentary Medicine (English)
    Effectiveness, Safety and Cost-Effectiveness of Homeopathy in General Practice (2006)
    Efficacy of antimony 6X on blood coagulation (2009) //pro-coagulatory effect in bleeding disorder
    Homeopathic patho-genetic trials produce specific symptoms different from placebo (2009) //homeopathy differs from placebo
    http://www.heel.ca/pdf/studies/Euphorbium%20comp.%20antiviral.pdf (2001) FULLTEXT //Euphorbium, Pulsitilla & Luffa for viral infection of respiratory tract, Influenza A virus & rhino virus
  7. Forschende Komplementarmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde (German ) meaning Research in Complementary and Classical Natural Medicine
    Comparing Luffa compositum-Heel nasal spray with cromolyn sodium spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (1999) FULL TEXT
    Efficacy of Phyto-Hypophyson L in female for sterility & infrequent mensuration (2000) //recommended
    Treatment of rhinitis & sinus with Euphorbium compositum nasal drops (2005)
    Efficacy of Arnica 12X in varicose vein surgery (2003)
    Efficacy of the homeopathic Euphorbium compositum-S nasal spray in sinusitis (1994)

DOUBLE BLIND STUDIES

  1. Public Health (BioMed Central)
    Homeopathic medical practice (2005) FULL TEXT // (Chronic) Disease severity and quality of life demonstrated marked and sustained improvements following homeopathic treatment
    How healthy are chronically ill patients after eight years of homeopathic treatment? (2008) FULL TEXT //Disease severity & quality of life increases
  2. Homeopathy
    Treating hot flushes in menopausal women with homeopathic treatment (2008)
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14960096 (2004) //improved physical condition & high satisfaction, allopathy drug discontinued
    Homeopathic treatment of allergic rhinitis (2009)
  3. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine
    Homeopathic Treatment for Chronic Disease (2005)
  4. Complementary & Alternative Medicine (BioMed Central)
    Patient satisfaction & side effects: comparing homeopathy & conventional medicine (2008) FULL TEXT //higher patient satisfaction & 3 times fewer side-effects in homeopathy
    Homeopathic & conventional treatment for acute respiratory & ear complaints (2007) FULL TEXT
  5. Homoeopathic Links (Theime)
    Usefulness of the Homeopathic Medicines in Furunculosis (2010) //Hepar sulphuris, Antimonium crudum, Sulphur and Calcarea carbonica for boils
  6. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing
    Viburcol (Chamomilla, Belladonna, Calcarea carbonica, Dulcamara, Plantago major, and Pulsatilla) for treatment of fever (2005)
    Asclepias vincetoxicum & Sulphur for treatment of upper respiratory infections associated with common cold (2006)
    Traumeel S ointment for tendon injuries (2005) //traumeel superior to diclofenac gel
  7. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
    Homeopathic treatment of uterine pain during mensuration (2009) FULL TEXT
  8. Pediatrics International (Wiley)
    Spascupreel for treatment of Gastro-intestinal cramps (2007)
  9. Scientific World Journal (UK)
    Avena Sativa 2X, Passiflora Incarnata 2X, Zincum Valerianicum 4X, Coffea Cruda 12X for treatment of Insomnia (2008)
    Avena Sativa 2X, Passiflora Incarnata 2X, Zincum Valerianicum 4X, Coffea Cruda 12X for treatment of nervousness/restlessness (2009)
  10. The Clinical Journal of Pain (Williams & Wilkins)
    Homeopathic Treatment of chronic low back pain (2009)
  11. MicroVascular Research (Elseiver)
    Micro-circulatory effects of VertigoHeel on vertigo (2005)
  12. International Journal of Clinical Practice
    Aconitum napellus 4X, Bryonia alba 4X, Eupatorium perfoliatum 3X for viral infections (2004)
  13. British Homoeopathic Journal
    Homeopathic treatment in women with premenstrual syndrome (2001)

The above 163 studies are published in the following 74 Journals (in alphabetic order)
2. Allergologie
3. Alternative Medicine Review
4. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
5. American Journal of Homoeopathic Journal
6. American Journal of Pain Management
7. Annals of Pharmacotherapy
8. Applied Health Economics & Health Policy
9. Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery
10. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
11. Archives of Otolaryngology- head & Neck Surgery
12. Arzneimittel-Forschung
13. Asian Journal of Homeopathy
14. Aspects of Research in Homeopathy
15. Berlin Journal of Research in Homeopathy
16. British Homoeopathic Journal
17. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
18. British Journal of Podiatry
19. British Medical Journal
20. Cancer
21. Cahrs de Biotherapie
22. Chest
23. Complementary & Alternative Medicine
24. Complementary Therapies in Medicine
25. Der Kassenarzt
26. Ear, Nose and Throat disorders
27. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
28. European Journal of Paedretics
29. Evidence-based Complimentary & Alternative Medicine
30. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
31. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing
32. Forschende Komplementarmedizin
33. Forschende Komplementarmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde
34. Fortschritte der Medizin
35. HNO
36. Homeopathy
37. Homoeopathic Links
38. Human and Experimental Toxicology
39. Inflammation Research
40. Interdisciplinary Sciences: Life Sciences
41. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
42. International Journal of Clinical Practicev 43. International Journal of High Dilution Research
44. International Journal of Oncology
45. International Review of Allergology and Clinical Immunology
46. Journal de gynecologie, obstetrique et biologie de la reproduction
47. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
48. Journal of Clinical Gastro-enterology
49. Journal of Dermatological Treatment
50. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
51. Journal of Hellenic Headache Association
52. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereologyv
53. Lancet
54. MicroVascular Research
55. Non-linear Biomedical Physics
56. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
57. Pediatrics
58. Pediatrics International
59. Pediatrie
60. Pharmacy World and Science
61. Phlebology
62. Physica A
63. Public Health
64. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
65. Rheumatology
66. Scientific World Journal
67. Sleep Medicine
68. The Clinical Journal of Pain
69. The European Journal of Heart Failure
70. The Science of the total Environment
71. Tijdschrift Integrale Geneeskunde
72. Toxicological Sciences
73. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
74. Zeitschrift fur Allgemeinmedizin

Time-Line
1823: World's first homeopathy Journal in german: Ernst Stapf's Archive for the Homoeopathic Medicine
1835: World's first Double-Blind Randomised Placebo Controlled Trial was conducted by a homeopath physician Johann Jacob Reuter, The Nuremberg salt test
1860: World's first homeopathy Journal in English: The North American Journal of Homeopathy
1988: Memory of water (Dr. Jacques Benveniste, Nobel Prize Winner)
1999: Potentisation alters the properties of Water (Elia V, Niccoli M)
2001: Alcohol forms clusters with water (Wisniewski)
2005: Potentisation alters the structure of water (Dr. Rustom Roy)
2006: PPR Entanglement (Dr. Milogram)
2009: Potentisation creates nano-structures (Dr. Luc Montagnier, Nobel Prize Winner)

Anecdotal Evidence
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1040950/The-alternative-Holby-City-treats-30-000-patients-year.html
http://www.i-sis.org.uk/peerReviewUnderTheSpotlight.php//peer-reviewVspublicscrutiny
http://www.rationalskepticism.org/pseudoscience/the-danger-of-science-denial-alternative-medicine-split-t7418-760.html#p286797 //TMB http://www.rationalskepticism.org/pseudoscience/the-danger-of-science-denial-alternative-medicine-split-t7418-760.html#p288037 //TMB Potency Selection
http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-philosophy/removing-the-guesswork-from-potency-selection/ //golden ratio/Fibonacci scale of remedies
http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-philosophy/homeopathic-potency-selection/ //views of experts
http://www.homeoint.org/site/ahmad/potency.htm //Dr. Sayeed Ahmad
http://excalibur.110mb.com/myspc-lm.htm // X, C, LM/Q potency
Animal Studies
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17982565 (2007) //Scientific World Journal
http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-scientific-research/research-in-homoeopathy/3/
http://avilian.co.uk/2008/08/scientific-research-and-homeopathy-animal-studies/
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/1/abstract
http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/3/2/171 FULL TEXT
http://ict.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/4/362
http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/6/1/65
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/2/4 FULL TEXT
http://www.mri.psu.edu/faculty/rroy/media/Publications/DefiningStructure.pdf FULL TEXT
http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/nep139 FULLTEXT
Homeopathic Preparations in Cell Culture- a study report in Amala Cancer Research
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18657773
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10484832 (1999) //Alternative Therapies in Health & Management
http://www.similima.com/thesis39.html
http://www.earthsremedy.com/researchinhomeopathy.htm
Plant Studies
http://avilian.co.uk/2008/08/scientific-research-and-homeopathy-plant-studies/

Research Books

  1. The Trials of Homeopathy. Michael Emmans Dean. KVC Verlag. 2004. ISBN 3-933351-40-5
  2. The Emerging Science of Homeopathy.Complexity, Biodynamics and Nanopharmacology. Paolo Bellavite, Andread Signorini. North
    Atlantic Books. Berkeley, California. 1995. ISBN 1-55643-384- 0. http://bit.ly/d30Tll
    Conclusion Research claims to have confirmed the efficacy of homeopathic medicine. Additional support comes from the fact that animals, plants and infants also benefit form homeopathic treatment and it is unlikely that they will react psychologically to a medicine they often do not know they are being given
    Further Reading:
    Scientific Research into Mechanism of Action of homeopathy medicine
    Homeopathy Explained
    20 most Frequently asked Questions and Answers on Homeopathy
    Status of Homeopathy around the world
    For suggestions, questions and feedback, you can use comment section. To know what is new in this version of knol, compare it with the previous version. Check right pane. To work upon http://www.homeopathy-soh.org/whats-new/research/evid/clinical-trials.aspx
    http://www.nutrition-matters.co.uk/misc/homeopathy.htm
    http://www.facultyofhomeopathy.org/research/rcts_in_homeopathy/index.html
    http://www.similima.com/ECHNov04.pdf

An Overview of Positive Homeopathy Research and Surveys http://www.similima.com/linksresearch.html Comments
Sign in to write a comment

Dr.Devendra Kumar
Dr.Devendra Kumar
Congratulations to BARC Scientists and Research officers CCRH,Mumbai and Director general CCRH, NIH, FMHCM,Mangalore for conductiong a huge and effective work on Homeopathy, I feel happy to write this comment. and happy to inform you that I have little acquintance with the medical analyser I have worked with the equipement when I was worked under ccrh in mumbai while working for this project. In this junction I would like to introduce my work on physiological variability.
please visit http://homeoresearch.blogspot.com
Thanks Dr.DEVENDRA KUMAR

Last edited Nov 11, 2010 9:15 AM
Report abusive comment
0 View/post replies (1) to this comment ▼
Dr.Mansoor Ali
Added to similima
Dear nanacy malik
As you requested the link added to http://www.similima.com
Link : http://www.similima.com/linksresearch.html
Keep in touch
Last edited Oct 15, 2010 12:17 AM
Report abusive comment
0 View/post replies (1) to this comment ▼
aanand ...
please add this link in your article of my site
how the anti-homeopathy critics have managed to spread misinformation about homeopathy http://t.co/1QdZUix
Last edited Sep 30, 2010 11:41 PM
Report abusive comment
0 Post reply to this comment ▼
Firuzi Mehta
Wonderful work!
Wonderful work, Nancy! This will be a very useful tool whenever we homeopaths need to counter the rubbish claims made by skeptics.
I shall bookmark it for handy use and shall also add a link to your knol on my website.
It must have taken tremendous effort and time to come up with a comprehensive and exhaustive compilation like this.
Really commendable!
Thank you!

Firuzi Mehta
Last edited Sep 28, 2010 8:01 AM
Report abusive comment
0 View/post replies (1) to this comment ▼
Truk
Really very poor.
A terrible mess, lots of blog and forum posts with many papers having nothing to do with homeopathy at all! To call this page: "130+ studies in support of homeopathy medicine published in 45+ peer-reviewed international journals" is a bit embarrassing as very few are actually about homeopathy! The comments here show that people tend not to read past the title.
The exploitation of the sick and ill by poorly qualified, fake doctors continues unabated.....
Last edited Sep 27, 2010 4:45 PM
Report abusive comment
0 Post reply to this comment ▼
srijon chaterjee
A GREAT JOB I MUST SAY! AUDE SAPERE!
Last edited Sep 25, 2010 7:19 AM
Report abusive comment
0 View/post replies (1) to this comment ▼
Chandran Nambiar K C
Congratulations, Dr. Nancy Malik
You have done a wonderful job, Dr. Nancy. An exhaustive collection source materials for those who are interested to take homeopathy forward. Hearty congratulations!
Last edited Sep 25, 2010 4:08 AM
Report abusive comment
0 View/post replies (1) to this comment ▼
Debby
Magnificent Collection
Dear Nancy. I will definitely use this handy list as a reference and let others know they can back up their talks and presentations with this source material.
When anyone says that homeopathy is just placebo or does not work, we can counter that with this type of information.
Many thanks for all of your hard work
hugs, Debby

Last edited Sep 25, 2010 12:13 AM
Report abusive comment
0 View/post replies (1) to this comment ▼
Dr Prabhat Tandon
Excellent article..
an excellent eyeopener article for those opposing homeopathy ...
check this link too:
?????????? -???? ??? ??????????? " ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? "( Is Homeopathy a trusted science or a placebo ) : http://drprabhattandon.wordpress.com/2008/08/11/is-homeopathy-trusted-science-or-a-placebo/

A Vastly Incomplete List of Scientific Research Behind Homeopathy :
http://homeopathytorrents.blogspot.com/2009/08/vastly-incomplete-list-of-scientific.html

Last edited Sep 25, 2010 12:16 AM
Report abusive comment
0 View/post replies (1) to this comment ▼

Edit this knol
Write a knol
Set display language: Japanese - 日本語
Dr. Nancy Malik BHMS
Homeopath Physician
Sector-23, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
Your rating:
Moderated collaboration
All Rights Reserved.
Version: 52
Versions
Last edited: 6 hours ago.
Reviews
Be the first to review this knol
Dr. Nancy Malik BHMS also wrote

  • Status of Homeopathy
  • Homeopathy
  • How homeopathy works?
  • FAQ&A on Homeopathy
  • Homeopathy Explained

Knol translations
Help translate this knol into your language.
Search for uses of this page ▼
Categories
Doctor, health, homeopathy, medicine, Research, science
Based on community consensus.
Sign in to add or vote for categories
Learn more about categories
Activity for this knol
This week:
271pageviews
1comments
Totals:
6361pageviews
15comments

⑲ホメオパシーの有効性に関する様々な研究の要約

ルディー・バースパー氏(カナダ・ホメオパス)
http://www.jphma.org/About_homoe/Rudi_Verspoor.pdf
Historic Evidence for the Efficacy of Homeopathy:
Homeopaths treated cholera successfully. During the 19th century, there were seven severe epidemics in America, the most serious in 1832. The death rates of people treated without homeopathy were five times those of the homeopaths.
In 1854, the British Parliament authorized the London Board of Health to appoint a commission to see which treatments were best for cholera victims. They found "regular" hospitals had a death rate of 54 percent; the homeopathic hospital's death rate was 16 percent.
In the London Cholera epidemic of 1854, of the 61 cases of cholera treated [at the London Homeopathic Hospital], 10 died, a percentage of 16.4; of the 331 cases of choleraic and simple diarrhoea treated, one died. The neighbouring Middlesex Hospital received 231 cases of cholera and 47 cases of choleraic diarrhea. Of the cholera patients treated 123 died, a fatality rate of 53.2 per cent., amount the victims being one of the nurses.
Dr. Macloughlin, one of the medical inspectors appointed by the General Board of Health, visited the wards, examined the cases under treatment, and watched their progress. His statement, addressed to Mr. Hugh Cameron [1810-1897], a member of the medical staff, was as follows:
・ "You are aware that I went to your hospital prepossessed against the homeopathic system, that you had in me in your camp an enemy rather than a friend... and I need not tell you that I have taken some pains to make myself acquainted with the rise, progress and medical treatment of cholera, and that I claim for myself some right to be able to recognise the disease, and to know something of what the medical treatment ought to be, and that there may, therefore, be no misapprehension about the cases saw in your hospital, I will add that, all I saw were true cases of cholera, in the various stages of the disease, and that I saw several cases which did well under your treatment which I have no hesitation in saying would have sunk under other. In conclusion I must repeat to you what I have already told you, and what I have told everyone whom I have conversed, that although an allopath by principle, education and practice yet were it the will of Providence to afflict me with cholera, and deprive me of the power of prescribing for myself, I would rather he in the hands of a homeopathic than an allopathic adviser." Dr. Macloughlin, as shown by his researches and publications, was undoubtedly well informed as to the nature of cholera. [Quoted in A History of the London Homeopathic Hospital, 1914.]
・ "...in Germany homeopaths were highly successful in treating the typhoid fever that Napoleon's tattered remnant of an army brought back with them [in 1812] from Moscow." [Griggs, 1981, p.179]
"...a committee was set up...to report on the various methods of treatment adopted [against cholera]...It was a dismal record of failure...but...it was completely silent on the two therapies which had been strikingly successful, those of the medical botanists, and homeopathic treatment with minute doses of camphor." [Griggs, 1981, p.208]
"Homeopathic treatment of cholera proved remarkably successful. Of the 1655 cholera patients treated in Raab [Hungary], for example, only six of the 154 patients treated homeopathically died, whilst of the remainder, 821 [almost 50%] treated conventionally, died." [Cook, 1981, p.157]
Modern Evidence for the Efficacy of Homeopathy
・ K. Linde, N. Clausius, G. Ramirez, et al., "Are the Clinical Effects of Homeopathy Placebo Effects? A Meta-analysis of Placebo-Controlled Trials." Lancet, September 20, 1997, 350:834-843.
This state of the art meta-analysis reviewed 186 studies, 89 of which fit pre-defined criteria. Rather than count and compare the number of trials which show efficacy of treatment, the researchers pooled the data from the various studies to assess data. The results showed that patients taking homeopathic medicines were 2.45 times more likely to experience a positive therapeutic effect than placebo.
J. Kleijnen, P. Knipschild, G. ter Riet, "Clinical Trials of Homeopathy." British Medical Journal, February 9, 1991, 302:316-323.
This is the most widely cited meta-analysis of clinical research prior to 1991. This meta-analysis reviewed 107 studies of homeopathic medicines, 81 of which (or 77%) showed positive effect. Of the best 22 studies, 15 showed efficacy. The researchers concluded: "The evidence presented in this review would probably be sufficient for establishing homeopathy as a regular treatment for certain indications." Further, "The amount of positive evidence even among the best studies came as a surprise to us." C. N. Shealy, MD, R.P. Thomlinson, V. Borgmeyer, "Osteoarthritic Pain: A Comparison of Homeopathy and Acetaminophen." American Journal of Pain Management, 1998;8:89-91
A double-blinded study to document the relative efficacy of homeopathic remedies in comparison to acetaminophen for the treatment of pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA) among 65 patients. An IRB approved protocol. Results of the study documented better pain relief in the homeopathic group (55% achieved measured relief from homeopathy as compared to 38% from acetaminophen); however, the superiority of this treatment, in comparison with the acetaminophen group, did not reach statistical significance. The investigators conclude that homeopathic treatments for pain in OA patients appear to be safe and at least as effective as acetaminophen, and are without its potential adverse effects including compromise to both liver and kidney function. Many of the patients asked to continue with the homeopathic treatment.
M. Weiser, W. Strosser, P. Klein, "Homeopathic vs. Conventional Treatment of Vertigo: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Study." Archives of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, August, 1998, 124:879-885.
This was a study with 119 subjects with various types of vertigo, half of whom were given a homeopathic medicine (a combination of four homeopathic medicines) and half were given a leading conventional drug in Europe for vertigo, betahistine hydrochloride. The homeopathic medicines were found to be similarly effective and significantly safer than the conventional control.
D. Reilly, M. Taylor, N. Beattie, et al., "Is Evidence for Homoeopathy Reproducible?" Lancet, December 10, 1994, 344:1601-6.
This study successfully reproduced evidence from two previous double-blinded trials all of which used the same model of homeopathic immunotherapy in inhalant allergy. In this third study, 9 of 11 patients on homeopathic treatment improved compared to only 5 of 13 patients on placebo. The researchers concluded that either homeopathic medicines work or controlled studies don't. Their work has again be recently replicated and is submitted for publication.
J. Jacobs, L. Jimenez, S. Gloyd, "Treatment of Acute Childhood Diarrhea with Homeopathic Medicine: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Nicaragua." Pediatrics, May 1994, 93,5:719-25.
This study was the first on homeopathy to be published in an American medical journal. The study compared individualized high potency homeopathic preparations against a placebo in 81 children, between ages 6 mo. and 5 yrs., suffering with acute diarrhea. The treatment group benefited from a statistically significant 15% decrease in duration. The authors noted that the clinical significance would extend to decreasing dehydration and postdiarrheal K. Linde, N. Clausius, G. Ramirez, et al.,"Are the Clinical Effects of Homeopathy Placebo Effects? A Meta-analysis of Placebo-Controlled Trials." Lancet, September 20, 1997, 350:834-843.
This state of the art meta-analysis reviewed 186 studies, 89 of which fit pre-defined criteria. Rather than count and compare the number of trials which show efficacy of treatment, the researchers pooled the data from the various studies to assess data. The results showed that patients taking homeopathic medicines were 2.45 times more likely to experience a positive therapeutic effect than placebo. J. Kleijnen, P. Knipschild, G. ter Riet, "Clinical Trials of Homeopathy." British Medical Journal, February 9, 1991, 302:316-323.
This is the most widely cited meta-analysis of clinical research prior to 1991. This meta-analysis reviewed 107 studies of homeopathic medicines, 81 of which (or 77%) showed positive effect. Of the best 22 studies, 15 showed efficacy. The researchers concluded: "The evidence presented in this review would probably be sufficient for establishing homeopathy as a regular treatment for certain indications." Further, "The amount of positive evidence even among the best studies came as a surprise to us." C. N. Shealy, MD, R.P. Thomlinson, V. Borgmeyer, "Osteoarthritic Pain: A Comparison of Homeopathy and Acetaminophen." American Journal of Pain Management, 1998;8:89-91
A double-blinded study to document the relative efficacy of homeopathic remedies in comparison to acetaminophen for the treatment of pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA) among 65 patients. An IRB approved protocol. Results of the study documented better pain relief in the homeopathic group (55% achieved measured relief from homeopathy as compared to 38% from acetaminophen); however, the superiority of this treatment, in comparison with the acetaminophen group, did not reach statistical significance. The investigators conclude that homeopathic treatments for pain in OA patients appear to be safe and at least as effective as acetaminophen, and are without its potential adverse effects including compromise to both liver and kidney function. Many of the patients asked to continue with the homeopathic treatment.
M. Weiser, W. Strosser, P. Klein, "Homeopathic vs. Conventional Treatment of Vertigo: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Study." Archives of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, August, 1998, 124:879-885.
This was a study with 119 subjects with various types of vertigo, half of whom were given a homeopathic medicine (a combination of four homeopathic medicines) and half were given a leading conventional drug in Europe for vertigo, betahistine hydrochloride. The homeopathic medicines were found to be similarly effective and significantly safer than the conventional control.
D. Reilly, M. Taylor, N. Beattie, et al., "Is Evidence for Homoeopathy Reproducible?" Lancet, December 10, 1994, 344:1601-6.
This study successfully reproduced evidence from two previous double-blinded trials all of which used the same model of homeopathic immunotherapy in inhalant allergy. In this third study, 9 of 11 patients on homeopathic treatment improved compared to only 5 of 13 patients on placebo. The researchers concluded that either homeopathic medicines work or controlled studies don't. Their work has again be recently replicated and is submitted for publication.
J. Jacobs, L. Jimenez, S. Gloyd, "Treatment of Acute Childhood Diarrhea with Homeopathic Medicine: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Nicaragua." Pediatrics, May 1994, 93,5:719-25.
This study was the first on homeopathy to be published in an American medical journal. The study compared individualized high potency homeopathic preparations against a placebo in 81 children, between ages 6 mo. and 5 yrs., suffering with acute diarrhea. The treatment group benefited from a statistically significant 15% decrease in duration. The authors noted that the clinical significance would extend to decreasing dehydration and postdiarrheal malnutrition and a significant reduction in morbidity. E. Ernst, T. Saradeth, and K.L. Resch, "Complementary Treatment of Varicose Veins: A Randomized Placebo-controlled, Double-Blind Trial." Phlebology, 1990, 5:157-163.
This study of 61 patients showed a 44% improvement in venous filling time in the homeopathic treated group when compared with placebo. P. Fisher, A. Greenwood, E.C. Huskisson, et al., "Effect of Homoeopathic Treatment on Fibrositis." British Medical Journal, August 5, 1989, 299:365-66.
This trial was double-blind with a crossover design, comparing Rhus toxicodendron to a placebo in 30 patients all suffering from an identical syndrome identified as the admission criteria. It showed a significant reduction in tender spots, by 25%, when patients were given the homeopathic medicine, as compared to when they were given the placebo.
D. Reilly, M. Taylor, C. McSherry,
"Is Homeopathy a Placebo Response? Controlled Trial of Homeopathic Potency with Pollen in Hayfever as Model." Lancet, October 18, 1986, 881-86.
The double-blind study compared a high dilution homeopathic preparation of grass pollens against a placebo in 144 patients with active hay fever. The study method considered pollen counts, aggravation in symptoms and use of antihistamines and concluded that patients using homeopathy showed greater improvement in symptoms than those on placebo, and that this difference was reflected in a significantly reduced need for antihistamines among the homeopathically treated group. The results confirmed those of the pilot study and demonstrate that homeopathic potencies show effects distinct from those of the placebo.
J. Lamont,
"Homeopathic Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Controlled Study."
British Homoeopathic Journal
, October, 1997, 86:196-200.
Forty-three children were randomly assigned to either placebo or homeopathic treatment groups, and then those initially given a placebo were given an individualized homeopathic medicine. All subjects underwent a homeopathic interview to determine which individualized remedy was appropriate. Results show significant improvement once the patient began taking the homeopathic medicine.
K.H. Friese, S. Kruse, H. Moeller,
"Acute Otitis Media in Children: A Comparison of Conventional and Homeopathic Treatment." Biomedical Therapy, 60,4,1997:113-116, originally published in German in Hals-Nasen-Ohren (Head, Nose, and Otolyngarology) August, 1996:462-66. This study of 131 children allowed parents to choose homeopathic or conventional medical care from their ear, nose, and throat doctor. 103 children underwent homeopathic treatment, while 28 underwent conventional care. They found that the total recurrences of the homeopathic treated group was .41 per patient, while the antibiotic treatment group was .70 per patient. Of the "homeopathic" children who did have another earache, 29.3% had a maximum of three recurrences, while 43.5% of the "antibiotic" children had a maximum of six recurrences.
Vittorio Elia and Marcella Niccoli,
"Thermodynamics of extremely diluted aqueous solutions." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, June 1999
An extensive thermodynamic study has been carried out on aqueous solutions obtained through successive dilutions and succussions of 1% in weight of some solutes up to extremely diluted solutions, (less than 1x10-5 mol kg-1) obtained via several 1/100 successive dilution processes. The interaction of acids or bases with the extremely diluted solutions has been studied calorimetrically at 25_C. Measurements have been performed of the heats of mixing of acid or basic solutions, having different concentrations, with bidistilled water or with the extremely diluted solutions. Despite the extreme dilution of the solutions, an exothermic heat of mixing in excess has been found, in about the 92% of the cases, with respect to the corresponding heat of mixing with the untreated solvent. Here [it is shown] that successive dilutions and succussions may alter permanently the physical-chemical properties of the solvent water. The nature of the phenomena here described still remains unexplained, but significant experimental results are obtained.

J. Dittmann and G. Harisch,
"Characterization of Differing Effects Caused by Homeopathically Prepared and Conventional Dilutions Using Cytochrome P450 2E1 and Other Enzymes as Detection Systems." The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1996 2:2,279-290. Target of investigation was to ascertain differences in the effects of homeopathic potencies (D) and equally concentrated conventional dilutions (V) on p-nitrocatechol formation catalyzed by CYP 2E1. Arsenicum album and potassium cyanatum (D) were compared to equivalent dilutions of As203 and KCN (V). Significant differences in enzyme activity were found. The difference of influence exists and this may be attributable to the manufacturing process of homeopathic drugs, namely, the stepwise dilution with intermediate agitation.
K. Linde, W.B. Jonas, D. Melchart, D., et al.,
"Critical Review and Meta-Analysis of Serial Agitated Dilutions in Experimental Toxicology," Human and Experimental Toxicology, 1994, 13:481-92.
This meta-analysis of 105 studies in toxicology showed that homeopathic medicines may be useful in treating toxic exposures. This meta-analysis was conducted by a similar group of researchers who recently published a meta-analysis on clinical studies in The Lancet.

P.C. Endler, W. Pongratz, G. Kastberg, et al.,
"The Effect of Highly Diluted Agitated Thyroxine on the Climbing Activity of Frogs." Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 1994, 36:56. P.C. Endler, W. Pongratz, R. van Wijk, et al., "Transmission of Hormone Information by Non-molecular Means." FASEB Journal, 1994, 8, Abs.2313.
These two studies show that a homeopathic medicine can influence the growth and development of tadpoles in water.
J. Benveniste, P.C. Endler and J. Schulte, (eds.), "Further Biological Effects Induced by Ultra High Dilutions: Inhibition by a Magnetic Field." Ultra High Dilution, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1994, 35. J. Benveniste, B. Arnoux, L. Hadji, "Highly Dilute Antigen Increases Coronary Flow of Isolated Hart from Immunized Guinea-pigs." FASEB Journal, 1992, 6: Abs. 1610. These two studies show that certain magnetic fields can neutralize the effects of a homeopathic medicine.
E. Davenas, B. Poitevin, and J. Benveniste,
"Effect on Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages of Orally Administered Very High Dilutions of Silica." European Journal of Pharmacology, April, 1987, 135:313-319. This study showed Silica 6C and Silica 10C induced a statistically significant increase in immune function, as measured in macrophages in the blood of mice. Paolo Bellavite and Andrea Signorini, Homeopathy: A Frontier in Medical Science. Berkeley: North Atlantic, 1995. This is the most notable book on homeopathic research to date. There are some excellent chapters that present compelling theories on how homeopathic medicines may work, in the light of new physics, biophysics, fractals, chaos, and complexity theory. P.C. Endler and J. Schulte (editors), Ultra High Dilution: Physiology and Physics. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1994. A compilation of articles on basic science research. A second volume, entitled Fundamental Research Ultra High Dilutions and Homeopathy, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, was published in 1998.
Roeland van Wijk and Fred A.C. Wiegant, Cultured Mammalian Cells in Homeopathy Research: The Similia Principle in Self-Recovery. Utrecht: University of Utrecht, 1994. This is a technical book which discusses research by cell biologists. This research verifies the homeopathic principle of similars. M. Doutremepuich (ed.), Ultra-Low Doses. Washington, DC/London: Taylor and Francis, 1991. This is a compilation of articles on basic science research. Economic Benefits of Homeopathic Treatment Cost Effectiveness of Homeopathic Treatment, Caisse Nationale de l'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salaris, 1996. A study of 130,000 prescriptions confirmed the results of the 1991 French Government Report (see below) and suggest further benefit and savings to the homeopathic approach to care. This survey also noted that the number of paid sick leave days by patients under the care of homeopathic physicians were 3.5 times less (598 days/year) than patients under the care of general practitioners (2,017 days/year). Although homeopathic medicines in France represent 5% of all medicines prescribed by physicians, they represent only 1.2% of all drug reimbursements due to their lower cost per prescription. (Homeopathic medicines are reimbursable under the French health care system).
Jacobs, J, Smith, N.

"Charges, utilization, and practice patterns from a pilot insurance program covering alternative medical services." American Public Health Association Conference, New York City, November 18-21, 1996.
Study conducted in Seattle, WA which compared the utilization and cost of homeopathic, naturopathic, and acupuncture services. Researchers concluded that homeopathic care was the least costly and that patient visits to homeopaths were less often than to other alternative care professionals. (This study, however, did not compare utilization or costs against conventional medical care). See also, W.B. Jonas and J. Jacobs, Healing with Homeopathy. New York: Warner, 1996.
"Cost-effectiveness of homeopathic treatment in a dental practice," British Homoeopathic Journal. January, 1993;82,1:22-28 This study evaluated a single homeopathic dentist's practice and suggested that it was more cost-effective than conventional dental care. Swayne, J., W. Feldhaus.
"The cost and effectiveness of homeopathy." British Homoeopathic Journal July 1992;81,3:148-150.5H.
This study suggested that doctors practicing homeopathic medicine issued fewer prescriptions and at a lower cost than their conventional medical colleagues. Gerhard, I, G. Reimers, C. Keller, and M. Schmuck, "Weibliche fertiltitasstorungen. Vergleich homoopathischer einzelmittel-mit konventioneller hormontherapie." Therapeutikon. 1991;7:309-315. A small study of the homeopathic treatment for infertility. This study showed that homeopathic care for infertility was 30 times less expensive per successful delivery than the match comparison group given conventional care. French Government Report: Social Security Statistics. CNAM (National Inter-Regulations System) 61, January 1991. Conducted by the French government in 1991, this study showed a significantly reduced cost from homeopathic care versus conventional medical care. The totality of costs associated with homeopathic care per physician was approximately one-half of the totality of care provided by conventional primary care physicians. However, because homeopathic physicians, on average, saw significantly fewer patients, the overall cost per patient under homeopathic care was still a significant 15% less. It is also appeared that these savings increase the longer a physician has been using homeopathy.

最近の記事

2017年5月
  1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
28 29 30 31